The pronunciation in the speaking skill. Activities

to improve the pronunciation in the speaking skill

La pronunciación en la expresión oral. Actividades para mejorar la pronunciación en la expresión oral


*Universidad de Guayaquil. Facultad de Filosofía

Escuela de Lenguas y Lingüística

**Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE


MSc. Lizmary Feriz Otaño*


Lcda. Jessica Campoverde Villamar*


Lic. Svietlana Leonor Sánchez Vera*


Lic. Jimmy Javier Perlaza Estupiñan*


MSc. Alfonso Oswaldo Sánchez Ávila*


TCRN.DECC.EE. Víctor Emilio Villavicencio Álvarez**







          This research studies the influence of the pronunciation in the speaking skill in the learning process of English in a public schools and how it can be reinforced through different and easy exercises. It was searched the possible causes why students do not speak in and out of classes, in order to find a solution to this problem; it was also revised the different theories that deal with the speaking skill and the opinion of different writers about the pronunciation and the speaking sill in the communication and learning process. Through the results of the instruments applied, it was possible to corroborate that pronunciation activities are not applied in the same way that grammar or any other activity, the analysis was done in different websites, scientific magazines and books. In addition, it was found that the students and the teachers are interested in better up the speaking skill, this information was revealed by the application of different investigation instruments like surveys, interviews, observation forms and diagnostic test. The application of these instruments let the authors realized about the importance and the interest of the educative community in the development of the speaking skill, by the correct learning of the pronunciation in the learning process. Concluded this research, it was possible to create activities that will help the learning process of speaking; and will be more interesting the fact of teaching pronunciation to teenagers.

          Keywords: Pronunciation. Oral production. IPA (International Phonetics Alphabet).



          Este proyecto de investigación estudia la influencia de la pronunciación en el desarrollo de la habilidad del habla en el proceso de aprendizaje del inglés en un colegio público y cómo puede ser reforzado a través de diferentes y sencillos ejercicios. En primer lugar, se realizó la búsqueda de las posibles causas que provocan que los estudiantes no usan el inglés dentro y fuera de las clases con el fin de encontrar una solución a estos problemas; también se revisaron las diferentes teorías relacionadas con la expresión oral y la opinión de diferentes autores sobre la importancia de la misma en la comunicación y en el aprendizaje; gracias a esta investigación se pudo corroborar que las actividades de pronunciación no se aplican de la misma de manera que la gramática o cualquier otra actividad, dicha revisión bibliográfica fue realizada en diferentes sitios web, revistas científicas y libros. También se pudo corroborar que los estudiantes y los profesores tienen interés en mejorar la expresión oral. Esta información fue arrojada por los resultados de los diferentes instrumentos de investigación aplicados como: encuestas, entrevistas, guía de observación y prueba de diagnóstico. La aplicación de estos instrumentos permitió a los autores darse cuenta de la importancia y el interés de la comunidad educativa en el desarrollo de la producción oral y la pronunciación. A través de la misma se hizo posible la creación de actividades que ayudarán al proceso de aprendizaje del habla; y hará más interesante el hecho de enseñar pronunciación a los adolescentes.

          Palabras clave: Pronunciación. Producción oral. IPA (Alfabeto Fonético Internacional).


Reception: 12/19/2016 - Acceptance: 07/21/2017


1st Review: 06/22/2017 - 2nd Review: 07/16/2017


Lecturas: Educación Física y Deportes, Revista Digital. Buenos Aires - Año 22 - Nº 230 - Julio de 2017. http://www.efdeportes.com/

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    This research project has the objective to show the importance of the development of the speaking skill in the public education. Similarly, to reinforce this skill in the students from ninth course of basic education from the “Provincia de Bolivar” high school. The problem was found during the different observations to classes by the authors, and from the teaching practices made in prior years.

    The students achieve to conjugate and use English in a written way; but in most of the cases, they cannot express their selves orally. In each of the different chapters of this project, it will be found the different reasons and the solution proposed by the authors.

    At the beginning, it is presented the problem and the possible causes. In addition, it will be delimited the problem, the place, the time and the group of students to work with. It will be set down the problem, the causes, the solution, the objectives, the variables and the importance of this topic.

    Formerly, it will be presented all the different theories and the different authors that let the researchers build the foundations of this project. All these frameworks refer on the skill the authors worked on, and the importance of the development of the same.

    Subsequently, it will be explained all the scientific method that were applied in this project; as well, it will be presented all the instruments of research, like, survey, interview, diagnostic test and observation form. All these instruments gave the results that show the importance and the relevance of this project, these instruments will be analyzed and explained.

    Finally, it will be presented the solution given by the authors. After the analysis and the research done, it was possible to determine a solution to this problem. Here it will be explained all the activities and the reasons they were chosen.


    To determine the influence of the pronunciation in the speaking skill through a bibliographic review, statistical analysis and a field study to design activities to improve the pronunciation in the oral expression of the English language.


    The speaking skill is one of the most difficult abilities to develop. The reality shows the importance of the speaking in the communication process (MacWhinney, 2014; Hulit, Fahey, & Howard, 2014; Owens Jr, 2016). For these reasons and many more, the authors of this project are convinced of the importance of pronunciation in the speaking skill improvement (Gilakjani, 2012; Gilbert, 2012; De Jong, Steinel, Florijn, Schoonen, & Hulstijn, 2013).

    According to psychologists, the human beings need to communicate to have a healthy development (Blake, Leach, Robbins, Pike, & Needleman, 2013; Rosenberg, & Chopra, 2015). Sociologists also agreed with the importance of communication in social life. If a human does not communicate, the human will be isolated, and will lose his/her mind.

    As it is said by Gonzalez (1999) on his book Personalidad y Educación, “The communication is a process of social interaction, and this interaction is necessary for the human being to express their needs, goals, emotions, opinions, and others” (p.45). This interaction can be applied in the class activities, and routines. In order to get a correct social interaction it is necessary to have a good pronunciation. If the pronunciation is not correct, the message could be misunderstood. All these reasons and situations let the authors realize the convenience of this project.

    Learning a foreign language gives the students more opportunities in their professional lives (Mitchell, Myles, & Marsden, 2013). Nowadays, our world is globalized, and people who can communicate with different cultures in different languages have more professional opportunities to get a better job. This is one of the reasons why it is so important to learn a foreign language.

    The importance of the development of speaking skill is huge and uncountable; and the results of this research will provide a new material to reinforce the speaking skill. The creation of new materials based on the pronunciation will make easier the teaching of this one.

    This project will contribute to science by spurting new knowledge in teaching English as a foreign language. This contribution is important in the learning process of the future generations of students

    In his first title about the general principles, in the second article, remark BB mention the rights of the students to learn a language of an international community, also in the remark W, the quality of education is guarantee. In the article three, remark Q it mentions the recognition of the development, the promotion and the strengthening of the intercultural education in Ecuador. The LOEI is a legal document that proves the importance of the application of this project. Also, shows the commitment of the government in the education of children, adolescents and adults.

    All the sciences are connected and the psychology and the pedagogy are not the exception. The pedagogy is a branch of the psychology. Psychology gives the bases, the first steps to develop the pedagogy. This new science is studied through different methods or approaches that appeared by the time.

    Speaking was not one of the first of the skill to be taught. If the history is reviewed, it shows that the first method to teach a foreign language of the Grammar Translation Method (GTM). This method was based on reading and writing in a perfect way. On that time, it was not necessary to learn to speak or listen, that is why it was not though. After many years because of the new psychological theories, people realized that the learning process needed to change.

    These necessities let the emergence of the Direct Method, developed by Frankle for the first time in 1884. This method works with the four skills. It is the most used. It is based on the idea that students must learn by comparing the objects with the concepts directly in the L2. The grammar is given in context, not as fixed rules. The pronunciation is not emphasized; it is just given in context.

    There are also other methods like the reform method, the suggestopedia, etc., that has made little changes in the learning process. Unfortunately, none of these methods faced the pronunciation problems of the students. Pronunciation must be developed. Even though, important authors have mentioned the importance of the pronunciation in the communicative process, there are still important parts that needed to be reinforce in this branch of linguistics.

    Even though, there are some skills that need to be developed in order to achieve a good communication process; but in the ESL classes in public institution the Speaking skill is the less work, that is why the authors of this project are convinced that the speaking skill is the most important ability to be reinforced. The speaking is the most direct method to transmit a message; also, it is the first productive ability that a human being develops since the birth. As it is said by Romeu (1978)

    Based on the important role of language in society, we believe that it must meet some very important tasks, namely:

  • To enable communication of people and exchange of experiences in the development of daily activity.

  • To serve as a medium through which takes place the formation of new generations, as it is through language that individuals acquire the necessary development of productive activity technical policy expertise, scientific, artistic, and ideological.

  • Preserving the cultural heritage left by humankind and transmit our experiences to future generations.

  • To serve as a mean of expressing our feelings, moods and let us to understand the inner world of the people around us. (p.55)

    For the human being it is essential to communicate and to learn how to communicate in a correct way. Humans are social beings, who need to be in touch with the rest of the world. If the human being does not communicate, the brain does not make the necessary connections and the human being would lose his/her mind. As it happens in the movie “Cast Away”, (2000) in which the principle character gets lost in an isolated island, and get crazy because he loses the conception of the time, and creates imaginary friends who he talks with. Communication, especially oral communication is as important as water in the life.

    The importance of communication has been study for different sciences as it is said by Greene & Burleson (2008) in the Handbook of Communication and Social Interaction Skills:

    In Light of the importance of communication skills, it is not hardly surprising that they have been a continuing object of study by scholars and researchers from numerous disciplines, including virtually every branch of communication (e.g., interpersonal, group, organizational, health, public, mass), several areas of psychology (cognitive, social, clinical, developmental, and industrial), as well as a variety of others disciplines, including education, family studies, business management, and nursing.(p.13)

    According to different psychologists, the communication is essential in order to have good psychological development. For example Gonzalez (1999) in his book Personalidad, Educación y Desarrollo, mentions the importance of communication: “The communication is a process of social interaction, and this interaction is necessary for the human being to express their needs, goals, emotions, opinions, and others” (p.23). Without communication, people are nothing. Communication is the key to have a healthy psychological development.

    It was already established the importance of communication for a person’s psychological development. That let the authors realize the importance of working with Speaking Skill as the topic of research. Now the question is how humans process new information in order to learn something new. Everything evolves, and humans are not the exception.

    Thanks to the theory developed by Noam Chomsky (1986) Nativist Theory, it was possible to study the psychological learning process from another perspective. This theory says that children are born with a “Language Acquisition Devise”; this devise lets children learn languages in an easy way. Children have a natural fluency for language, it is not necessary to give them many grammar rules, in order to make them speak. Children are able to make comparisons and assimilate a Universal Grammar. For example, children do not make mistakes by putting in a wrong order the subject, verb or object. They know instinctively how to speak in a right way, without any grammar rules. The fact that children are used to say “goed” instead of “went” it means that they are not learning only by repetition.

    In addition, there is the theory of Vygotski, this is the Sociocultural Theory. It mentions that humans get new knowledge based on a previous experience. He says also that “Learning is a necessary and universal aspect of the process of developing culturally organized, specifically human psychological function" (Vygotski, 1978, p. 90).

    By the end of the XX century and the beginning of the XI century, the term Globalization came to live. This term was created after the beginning of many commercial trades created between different countries all over the world. Countries started to make business between each other’s, so it was born a World Economy. Trades like TLC, MERCOSUR, WTO, etc. have developed and helped the economies from different countries. From all these circumstances the term of globalization was born. According to the dictionary Marriam-Webster(2015) the term globalization refers to “The development of an increasingly integrated global economy marked especially by free trade, free flow of capital, and the tapping of cheaper foreign labor markets.”(p. 89)

    Most of these trades all over the world have been signed in a foreign language like English. These trades make necessary to speak another language. In addition, the new carriers like international business obligate students to learn a second or even a third language. These necessities aloud the authors to keep going with this topic.

    Morin (2003) affirms about a global society that:

    This techno-economic globalization can be seen as the last stage of the globalization. At the same time, it can be considered as the emergence of an infrastructure of a new society: a world society. A society has a territory that carries a communications system. The planet is a gifted territory texture Communications (aircraft, telephone, fax, Internet) from which no society could have in the past. A society has an economy; the economy is now global. A society is inseparable from civilization. There is a world civilization (p.2).

    Morin describes the concept of a new world society, and the components of this society. Also mentions the importance of the communication, why this needs to be present in the society; how the new technology and the global economy have changed the civilization. Communication makes changes and marks the future of the human race. That is why it is so important to learn another languages and especially international business language English.

    Communication lets human beings transmit a message. The objective of this project is to prepare the students to improve this communication process. Students will have all the tools to pronounce in a better way, and this will permit a better communication.

    In order to develop a good teaching-learning process there are different competences involved. According to the, (Common European Framework for Reference for Languages, 2011) “Competences are the sum of knowledge, skills and characteristics that allow a person to perform actions”(p. 9). There are considered three different competences in the teaching process: Linguistic, Sociolinguistic and Pragmatics.

    Linguistic “Include lexical, phonological, syntactical knowledge and skills and other dimensions of language as system” (Common European Framework for Reference for Languages, 2011, p. 13), it means all the structured part of the language, all the little details that can be studied by rules, and the functions of the words. “Sociolinguistics refer to the sociocultural conditions of language use” (Common European Framework for Reference for Languages, 2011, p. 13) it involves the culture of the language that students are learning, also the rules of politeness, the relationships, the modals, folk wisdom, traditions, etc. Finally there is Pragmatics "Concerned with the functional use of linguistic resources (production of language functions, speech acts), drawing on scenarios or scripts of interactional exchanges" (Common European Framework for Reference for Languages, 2011, pág. 13) it refers to the irony, sarcasm, parody, etc. related to the new language. Also, the part of the language that is concerned with the discourse, coherence and cohesion of the speech.

    This project is looking forward to filling these blanks in the education. The activities will improve that essential part of the communication that has been left behind until now.

    This project is based on the constructivism theory, and in a small percent the direct method and the audiolingual methods. The first theory refers to how it is learned a new knowledge, in this case a new phoneme. The students will learn the new phonemes by making a comparison with a phoneme that they already know.

    In addition, the direct method will be used based on the rules that must followed to produce the new phonemes. They will learn which are the changes they must do in order to pronounce these new sounds.

    Finally, the audiolingual will be useful to make them practice by the repetition of the new sounds, and look for other words that could sound in the same way. The aggrupation of all these methods will help the authors to develop and increase the pronunciation of the students.

    This project will have many different beneficiaries. The direct ones are the students of the “Provincia de Bolivar” high school. These students will have the opportunity to improve in many ways their communication process and to get a better job in the future. The future generations and the scholar community will also be beneficiaries in a long term.


    The methodological design of this scientific research has an applicable nature because a solution of the problem is proposed, it is also descriptive-explanatory since it is shown the observables characteristics of it, besides the use of empirical and theoretical methods; in the same way, it is not experimental because it is not set the control of the variables.

Methods of investigation

  • Analysis-synthesis: There were applied in the second chapter in the theoretical foundations. During this chapter, the authors read and interpreted different concepts and theories in order to have a personal and final idea and concepts to apply and build the project. These methods allowed to investigate and interpret different criteria from different authors, and could reach a final concept to use in the project.

  • Inductive-Deductive: It is inductive because first there was an observation from which was taken the problem. This observation helped the authors to find out, which was the problem and studied it in order to have a solution, it can be evidenced in the chapter three and four. In addition, the operationalization of variable was done; in this chart from the chapter three, the two variables were divided into dimensions and indicators, it means that the authors wrote down every singular aspect to be studied and developed in chapter two.

  • Historical-logical: it was used in the theoretical framework, in which the authors searched for previous information, preceding authors and researchers. This investigation helped to confirm the importance of this project. The application of this research method helped the authors to realize the importance of this topic and how it can be developed and also to find a possible solution. All these bases were essential to show the relevance of this topic.

  • Systemic-Structural-Functional: It was disposed to give a real structure to the proposal. It was taking into account that every part of it is closely interrelated and they interact in a direct way as a system, because the design of activities in the chapter four is closely related to the book that is used at the public high schools. The activities are structured and designed according to the book they used.

    Additionally, there were applied investigation instruments in chapter three. Throughout their application, the authors had the opportunity to realize about the reality of the educational situation, and confirm the importance of this project. These techniques helped the authors to elaborate the conclusions and recommendations in chapter four; by making a final suggestion or summary, that involves the entire project. Finally, it helped to write down the summary of the theoretical framework in the justification in chapter one, and the summary of each chapter at the beginning of the project.

Instruments of the investigation

    To collect sufficient proofs and evidences were used as instruments of investigation: a diagnostic test aimed to the students, an interview to the main teacher, an observation form (for the class) and finally a survey; those were applied to the students and teacher from ninth course in basic general education in the high school “Provincia de Bolivar”

    During the application of the observation guide, the authors realized that the teacher makes many mistakes in the pronunciation. It was appreciated that in the most important part of the lesson, the development of the new content, it is possible to appreciate that the teacher has the general idea of the lesson but unfortunately there is a lack of knowledge about the principal tools in order to teach to their students, such as direct and audiolingual method. The lack of technology makes even harder the task of the teacher.

    In the final part, it was possible to evidence that, even when the teacher makes a great effort to encourage the students to speak or develop their linguistic competences, it is because of his/her lack of training that something is missing to close the cycle.

    After analyzing the diagnostic test, it was evident the deficiency of knowledge of basic pronunciation, students were not able to pronounce the endings sounds in verbs conjugated in third person or the different letters where we can find one or another sound.

    All these signals of bad pronunciation or, at least, deficiency of knowledge about it, is a huge call of help to create accurate activities so that the students will be able to manage better their skills in pronunciation and, of course, in the oral expression.

    During the application of the interview to the teacher, she assures that she has the competences required to approach phonetics and phonology, but, unfortunately, she does not possess suitable material to implement in the classroom. Finally, she thinks that having some activities to better up pronunciation in the speaking skill would be a magnificent idea so that they both teacher and students will take advantage of it.

    The application of the survey gave as a general conclusion that it exists a huge deficiency in speaking skill, based on problems with the pronunciation in the students of ninth grade from “Provincia de Bolivar” high school.

    In some of the questions, it was affirmed that students are interested in learning to pronounce in a correct way, and they find it important and useful to be applied.

Mathematical Statistical Method

  • Mathematical-Statistical Analysis: Through this method was possible to collect statistical information, which can be perceived in tables and graphs that allowed highlighting the difficulties and strengths found in each evaluated criteria related to the pronunciation in the oral expression.

  • Chi Square: It was used to prove the relation between the two variables studied.


    The conclusions that were obtained after this research are clear and precise. After they were accomplished the tests and observations, it was found the insufficiency in the oral expression. Also, it was evidenced, through the other instruments of investigation used in this research work that, one of the causes that influences in the scientific issue is in the weak oral expression and the inappropriate use of techniques of pronunciation. It was concluded, that the use of activities in order to better up the pronunciation and, at the same time the oral expression in the English language is timely and relevant.

    After all this, it is undeniable that the creation of these activities which could be an amazing tool in order to develop further abilities of the students so that they will improve pronunciation, and in the same way, the oral expression.


  • Blake, N., Leach, L. S., Robbins, W., Pike, N., & Needleman, J. (2013). Healthy work environments and staff nurse retention: The relationship between communication, collaboration, and leadership in the pediatric intensive care unit. Nursing administration quarterly, 37(4), 356-370.

  • De Jong, N. H., Steinel, M. P., Florijn, A., Schoonen, R., & Hulstijn, J. H. (2013). Linguistic skills and speaking fluency in a second language. Applied Psycholinguistics, 34(5), 893-916.

  • Gilakjani, A. P. (2012). The significance of pronunciation in English language teaching. English language teaching, 5(4), 96.

  • Gilbert, J. B. (2012). Clear speech teacher's resource and assessment book: Pronunciation and listening comprehension in North American English. Cambridge: University Press.

  • González, F. (1999). Personalidad, su Educación y Desarrollo. La Habana: Edit. Pueblo y Educación.

  • Greene, J. O., & Burleson, B. R. (2008). Handbook of Communication and Social Interaction. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

  • Hulit, L. M., Fahey, K. R., & Howard, M. R. (2014). Born to talk: An introduction to speech and language development. USA: Pearson Higher Ed.

  • MacWhinney, B. (2014). Mechanisms of Language Acquisition: The 20th Annual Carnegie Mellon Symposium on Cognition. UK: Psychology Press.

  • Marriam-Webster (2015, August 26). Marriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com

  • Mitchell, R., Myles, F., & Marsden, E. (2013). Second language learning theories. London: Routledge.

  • Modern Languages, D. (2011). Common European Framework for Reference for Languages. Strasbourg: Cambridge University Press.

  • Morin, E. (2003, January). Global Society or Global Empire? Beyond globalization and development. Retrieved from http://www.ugr.es/~pwlac/G19_01Edgar_Morin.html

  • Owens Jr, R. E. (2016). Language Development: An Introduction| Edition: 9. Instructor.

  • Romeu Escobar, A. (1978). Metodología de la Enseñanza de la Lengua. La Habana: Pueblo y Educación.

  • Rosenberg, M., & Chopra, D. (2015). Nonviolent Communication: A Language of Life: Life-Changing Tools for Healthy Relationships. Puddle Dancer Press.

  • Vygotski, L. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.



Activities to improve the pronunciation of the oral expression of the english language


    These activities have been created in order to improve the pronunciation of ninth “A” students from “Provincia de Bolivar” high school, to better up their speaking skill. The activities presented in the following pages have been carefully chosen to be developed in the classroom with the appropriate intervention of the teacher.

    The teacher can use this work indistinctively in the way he/she wants. It is possible to go right to the topic needed or, otherwise, to follow gradually.

    It is hoped that the students get in an easy and funny way every activity so that they will begin to produce sounds in a clear way and later they will be able to communicate with no problems.

General methodological recommendations for the teacher

    This System of activities was created to be used in a freeway, according to the needs of the teacher and much more, the students. The following recommendations are offered for making easier the use of it.

    Given the needs of the teacher, or much more meaningfully, those of the students, this work can be used in a free way, it is not obligatory to follow page by page. This means, the teacher is free to start from the subject that he/she thinks is more imperative.

    While students love to feel be part of a group, the teacher can emulate the activities shown in the videos in front of the group to make them feel more comfortable in order to evince that them, as well as the teacher, are friends and they can get along well and have some fun while learning something new.

    It is recommendable to download the videos and to have them in a USB key.

    The creativity and imagination are always powerful tools of teaching. Hereby, the teacher can feel exempt to add or modify the activities, according to the environment of the group, whenever he/she thinks it is necessary.

Conditions for the implementation

    For the correct development of these activities, it is advisable to follow several conditions to take advantage of it. In the next lines, they are proposed.

Use of links

    Nowadays we are living the well-known technology age, so it would have been unwise from our part not to include some links which help hugely the teacher, and mainly students to interact with devices they know very well and, at the same time to get the knowledge expected, related to the pronunciation. The recommendation for this part is to download the videos to show the students. If it is a song, it is possible to transform the format to MP3. The articulatory exercises could be presented by the teacher self; this way the students will be more confident about not to feel ashamed.

Use of audio activities

    It is not didactically appropriate to attach to one activity, nor even just two. For this reason, the teacher is free to search more audio documents to develop in class in order to their students have a wide sounds range and topics, too, so that they will get a high level of pronunciation input.

Tongue twister activities

    The “Tongue Twister Activities” have been placed at the end of the Table of Contents but the teacher can use them when necessary along the process of the classes. For example, while teaching one of the very first sounds, the teacher could search or why not create an easy Tongue Twister to amuse and motivate their students.

Description of the stages

Unit one: vowel sounds

Short & Long Vowel Sounds (song)

    This activity is a good beginning to teach the very first sounds that students must to familiarize with. The teacher should not be shy to exaggerate because this way, learners can get how to reproduce correctly these sounds. Indeed, every time the sound is pronounced or sung, it is advisable to maximize it to get it well. Another recommendation would be to divide the group in two, three or more groups depending on the intention of the teacher.


Vowel Mixer

    With this activity, the students will start to recognize and to understand that the same vowel sound they can find it in different words. Directions: Cut out the words and hand them to students. Tell them to find their groups based on the vowel sound. Edit the words to change the number and size of groups if desired.

bear                              ear

air                              here

care                              cheer

fire                              fur

liar                              her

higher                              sir

four                              car

more                              far

door                              jar

Pronunciation Cards 1 (classify according to the sound)

    In this activity, some words are set to practice the different vowel sounds inside the same initial and final consonant in order to establish a better comprehension of the difference. With the help of the teacher, the learners not only will get the correct pronunciation of vowel sounds, but they will have a first contact with consonant sounds, too.

    Teacher could innovate with the same material having their students to identify the words after been pronounced by the teacher.













Pronunciation Cards 2

    This is the second part of the same activity but with different words. Teacher can use it in other ways, as he/she wants. An advice useful is to “name” every student with a word in order to remember and keep his/her “name” and response to a command given.













Pronunciation Cards 3

    To finish the same topic (vowel sounds) the third part to practice, repeat and reproduce them. As a evaluation the teacher may ask their students to write some of the words they already have heard. Always exaggerating or maximizing the vowel sound.














    For this topic, it is proposed an activity with an audio document, and a video, too; these can be used as a guide to develop in class, which means, it is not necessary to show the video to the students. The teacher can easily model the correct pronunciation to the students.

    After know the different English diphthongs, the learners could do a link between these sounds and words in their mother language that contain the same sounds.

    A little exercise to make a list of all words they know containing the diphthong studied can be implemented.

Unit two: voicing

Vocal Exercises (vocal apparatus)

    This activity is quite interesting and helpful in order to make discover the students how their vocal apparatus work. It is advisable to the teacher to see the video by his/her own, and then have their learners to imitate the exercise little by little, part by part so that they will familiarize with what they have to do in order to reproduce different sounds. This is a good introduction to Voiced Sounds. A great tip to use the link is to develop a “Meditation Class”. With every part activating while the class they feel their bodies relaxing.


Tongue Exercises

    The teacher use about 15 minutes of a class to have the students stood. Under the “Grins Game” the learners will not realize they are doing tongue exercises.

    From time to time, the teacher includes Voiced Sounds and Vowel Sounds to make them to practice.


The Mirror Game

    In the Mirror Game, the students are disposed in pairs on in front if another. The teacher will model a facial gesture, and then sounds (vowel and consonant ones) in order to the students repeat it. Eventually, every pair will produce a sound expecting the repetition of his/her collaborates.

The Past Tense Pronunciation

    For this exercise, it is suitable to have already seen the past tense with regular verbs, evidently. Due to previous topics, students will be able to reproduce the final voiced and voiceless sound of the past tense in regular verbs.

    The teacher provided 3 big posters on the board (one for each different final pronunciation), and distribute lots of verbs conjugated in past tense (regular verbs) to all students. Each of them will pronounce their “name” loud and after everybody has done it, they will get together in his/her big poster.

    If it is better for the teacher to work just with the two voiced final (/-id/, /-d/) in order not to confuse students, he/she is free to do it.



Unit three: aspiration

Vocal Exercises

    In order to begin the new topic, it is recommended that the teacher start with some vocal exercises. For this, the teacher takes “voiceless sounds” apart so that everybody will know which sounds work with. It will be established that the sound they are going to reproduce will work without the interference of vocal cords.

    In-group of two, then three and even four phonemes the students will link them to make a chain of sounds relating and understanding the way to reproduce them. If necessary or convenient, the teacher can use the previous Vocal Exercise seen in the last unit.

Final Consonant Bingo

    To continue with entertaining activities, we have this Final Consonant Bingo. In order to make it funnier it is mixed both voiced and voiceless phonemes. The rules are the same as normal bingo.

    Every student will choose some words (everybody the same number) and then the teacher will say randomly expecting which of the learners raise his/her hand shouting BINGO! If they pronounce well the words, she/he chosen.

The Mirror Game

    One more time, to keep on the reaffirmation of knowledge by reinforcing and repeating certain activities, we offer “The Mirror Game”.

    In the mirror Game the students are disposed in pairs on in front if another. The teacher will model a facial gesture, and then sounds (vowel and consonant ones) in order to the students repeat it. Eventually, every couple will produce a sound expecting the repetition of his/her partner.

The Past Tense Pronunciation

    This time, after having learned voiced sounds (final pronunciation) the Past Tense Pronunciation activity can be developed more widely and completely, using voiced and voiceless final pronunciation. (/-d/, /-t/, /-id/).

    For this exercise, it is suitable to have already seen the past tense with regular verbs, evidently. Due to previous topics, students will be able to reproduce the final voiced and voiceless sound of the past tense in regular verbs.

    The teacher provided 3 big posters on the board (one for each different final pronunciation), and distribute lots of verbs conjugated in past tense (regular verbs) to all students. Each of them will pronounce their “name” loud and after everybody has done it, they will get together in his/her big poster.

Unit four: simple minimal pairs

Interactive Web Discrimination

    For the last unit of this work, the activities are a sort of miscellaneous where the learners will demonstrate all the nuances apprehended as a ludic quiz.

    We will begin with a discrimination of simple minimal pair audio activity in where the students select the correct word they hear.

Spelling Game

    The traditional Spelling Game is a great activity to assess the basic knowledge of pronunciation of students since they have to reproduce the very minimal phonemes in English.


    The teacher will show pictures or words in flashcards and learners will have, everyone, an opportunity to spell correctly. Then a contest will encourage the students to make their best effort.

Tongue Twisters

    To amuse learners and improve their oral production related to the pronunciation, the Tongue Twister activity is one of the best tools to push their skills to the boundaries. We offer a list of funny and challenging tongue twisters but the teacher can motivate their students to create their own ones. A competition with some real prix could be amazing.

The 44 sounds in English

    The final activity is an informative table with the 44 possible sounds in English. With this information, it is possible to create several other activities. For example, to delete all the information about spelling alternatives and to complete it with the own students’ elements apprehended.

Another articles in English


EFDeportes.com, Revista Digital · Año 22 · N° 230 | Buenos Aires, Julio de 2017  
Lecturas: Educación Física y Deportes - ISSN 1514-3465 - © 1997-2017 Derechos reservados