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Influence of attention on the effectiveness in free throws of pre-juvenile basketball team

Influencia de la atención en la efectividad en tiros libres del baloncesto pre-juvenil

Influência da atenção na eficácia em lances livres de basquetebol pré-juvenil

 

Lic. Oscar Andrés Orbe Yumisaca*

superprofe82@hotmail.es

Lic. Gladys Tatiana Olmedo Cruz*

tatyolmedo@gmail.com

Lic. Janneth Patricia Rodríguez Garnica**

jandepor_30@hotmail.com

Lic. Mónica Fabiola Machado Gómez**

fabymony_@outlook.es

Lic. Mirian Patricia Bustamante Riera**

patico_bstmnt@hotmail.com

 

*Colegio Fiscal “Gonzalo Zaldumbide”

Universidad Central del Ecuador

**Universidad Central del Ecuador

(Ecuador)

 

Reception: 03/05/2018 - Acceptance: 04/11/2018

1st Review: 04/08/2018 - 2nd Review: 04/08/2018

 

Abstract

    Introduction: Several variables influence the increasing level of the technical-tactical performance of the basketball player, including those of a psychological nature. Objective: To establish the existence of a high correlation between the attention and the effectiveness in free throws of pre-juvenile basketball players. Methods: 20 male basketball players of the Under 17 years category are studied, from the team of the Fiscal School "Gonzalo Zaldubide", applying a test of effectiveness in free throws in the second training mesocycle of the general preparation phase (teaching period 2016-2017), including an examination of attendance with the Toulouse-Pieron test. Both variables (Attention / Effectiveness) were correlated with the time or product r of Pearson. Results: The average of the effectiveness in free throws was established in 43.50% (Average-Low), and the average of the concentration indicator of the attention was established in 71.90% (Decreased), with the existence of a positive and highly significant correlation between both variables (r = 0.944548041). Conclusions: It is demonstrated for the present study, that the higher the attention concentration rate is, the higher the free throws effectiveness of male basketball players of pre-juvenile category.

    Keywords: Attention. Effectiveness. Free throws. Pre-juvenile basketball.

 

Resumen

    Introducción: En el incremento del rendimiento técnico-táctico del basquetbolista influyen numerosas variables, incluyendo aquellas de corte psicológico. Objetivo: Establecer la existencia de una alta correlación entre el índice de atención y la efectividad en tiros libre de basquetbolistas pre-juveniles. Métodos: Se estudia 20 basquetbolistas masculinos de la categoría Sub 17 años, del equipo del Colegio Fiscal “Gonzalo Zaldubide”, aplicándole una prueba de efectividad en tiros libres en el segundo mesociclo de entrenamiento de la fase de preparación general (periodo docente 2016-2017), incluyendo un examen de la atención con la prueba de Toulouse-Pièron. Ambas variables (Atención/Efectividad) fueron correlacionadas con el momento o producto r de Pearson. Resultados: La media de la efectividad en tiros libres se estableció en 43,50% (Media-Baja), y la media del indicador de concentración de la atención se estableció en 71,90% (Disminuida), existiendo una correlación lineal positiva altamente significativa entre ambas variables (r=0,944548041). Conclusiones: Se demuestra para el presente estudio, que a mayor índice de concentración de la atención mayor será la efectividad en tiros libres de basquetbolistas masculinos de categoría pre-juvenil.

    Palabras clave: Atención. Efectividad. Tiros libres. Baloncesto pre-juvenil.

 

Resumo

    Introdução: No aumento do desempenho técnico-tático do jogador de basquete, inúmeras variáveis ​​influenciam, inclusive as de natureza psicológica. Objetivo: Estabelecer a existência de alta correlação entre índice de atenção e a eficácia dos lances livres de jogadores de basquetebol pré-juvenis. Métodos: 20 jogadores de basquete masculino menores de 17 anos da equipe do Colégio Fiscal "Gonzalo Zaldubide" é estudada através da aplicação de um teste de eficácia em lances livres na fase de preparação geral segundo mesociclo formação (período 2016-2017 ensino), incluindo um exame da atenção com o teste de Toulouse-Pièron. Ambas as variáveis ​​(Atenção / Eficácia) foram correlacionadas com o produto-momento r de Pearson. Resultados: A média da eficácia de lances livres foi fixado em 43,50% (Médio-baixo), e a média do indicador de concentração da atenção foi fixada em 71,90% (Reduzida), e existe uma correlação linear positiva altamente significante entre as duas variáveis ​​(r = 0,944548041). Conclusões: Está demonstrado para o presente estudo, que quanto maior a taxa de concentração de atenção, maior a eficácia dos lances livres de jogadores de basquetebol masculino da categoria pré-juvenil.

    Unitermos: Atenção. Eficácia. Tiros livres. Basquete pré-juvenil.

 

Lecturas: Educación Física y Deportes, Vol. 23, Núm. 239, Abr. (2018)


 

Introduction

 

    Basketball as a team sport presents a more complex game dynamics than other sports of individual performance, since the development of the components of the preparation do not exclusively depend on the potential of the subject, but on the interrelation of the team as a whole. Due to the degree of difficulty, it is necessary that the athlete reaches a high level of perfection in the system of complex reactions that typify his performance (Acero & Peñas, 2005), reactions that are associated with the moving object; anticipatory reactions that are related to feints and deceptions (Hernández, Sicilia, & Espa, 2006), such as inhibitory reactions; and the need for a high coordination of the movements that must develop during the game, etc.

 

    In the components of the preparation, the factor concerning psychological preparation is fundamental in achieving high sports performance (González-Catalá & Calero-Morales, 2017; Gill, Williams, & Reifsteck, 2017; McCormick, Meijen, & Marcora, 2015; Wickens, Hollands, Banbury, & Parasuraman, 2015), being an essential aspect in the loads applied to the athlete as a fundamental direction of preparation (Forteza, 2005, Coterón López, Sampedro Molinuevo, Franco Álvarez, Pérez-Tejero, & Refoyo Román, 2013).

 

    The international literature includes numerous works related to the quantification and correlation of psychological indicators in basketball players and their relationship with specific sports performance (Paul & Garg, 2012, Englert, Bertrams, Furley, & Oudejans, 2015, Newland, Newton, Finch, Harbke, & Podlog, 2013). For the case that concerns, the study of attention as a perceptive quality includes the subject to manage several environmental to decide which are the most relevant factors to prioritize to execute a given stimulation (Moran, 2016; Aguirre-Loaiza, Ayala, & Bermúdez, 2016; Díaz & Sabatés, 2016), whether they are internal such as thoughts, sensations, self-dialogues, movements, etc. or external (what happened around the athlete), an aspect that has a link with sports´ efficiency rates, and specifically the effectiveness of the technical-tactical movement in numerous sports (Vodicar, Kovac, & Tusak, 2012).

 

    In the case of the concentration of attention in basketball, various strategies have been designed for its empowerment, as in the case of Castelnau-Díaz, & Ortega-De León (2014), with the implementation of a psychological training program for improving attention in free throws in school players (13-15 years), for which Baró (2011), established a system of actions to perfect the free throws in senior basketball players, including common appearance as the routine in the throwing of the free shot (López D., 2012), and the application of exercises to enhance attention based on sports concentration and the increase in the effectiveness of the free throw (Calero, Carrión, & Ponce, 2016; Carrión Flores, 2017), as of the possession of the ball, given the existing relationshipbetween the concentration-attention indicator and the lost and recovered balls in the game, as affirmed by Andrés (2015).

 

    The study of other variables influencing the effectiveness of basketball is related to factors such as distance, time, and fatigue (Lopez, 2010, Jiménez-Torres & López Gutiérrez, 2012), physical abilities such as coordination (Cortez Aguirre, 2014, Aules León, 2014), the optimal sports technique used (Yandun, Suasti, Yépez, & Realpe, 2017), body mass (Rendón, and others, 2017) and specialization (Páez, and others, 2016) to mention some of relevance.

 

    Given the foregoing, the link between concentration of attention and technical-tactical effectiveness in basketball has been the subject of national and international works, specifying the effects of concentration on the free throw (Rodríguez & Sáez, 2009; Calero, Carrión, & Ponce, 2016), field of study of this work. However, the need to establish specific strategies for each process of management of sports training, creates the need to adapt the contents of sports preparation and design new actions to enhance, from the development of psychological preparation in general, and the attention as a component of the specific concentration, training programs directly related to the needs of a specific basketball team.

 

    In this sense, there is the primary need to establish the existence or not of a linear correlation between the attention variables of the concentration and the technical-tactical effectiveness in the free throws of pre-juvenile basketball players, as it is the purpose of the investigation. The foregoing is useful to support the taking of specific work actions in the sample studied, with a view to increase the concentration of attention and the effectiveness in free throws of the pre-juvenile team of the Fiscal School "Gonzalo Zaldubide".

 

Methods

 

    We study 20 male subjects (under 17 years), from the Fiscal School "Gonzalo Zaldubide", in the city of Quito, Republic of Ecuador. The effectiveness of the free throws was evaluated by throwing 10 balls to which the successes and failures were measured based on the maximum number of attempts (obtaining the percentage), recording the values ​​in the second training mesocycle of the general preparation phase applied in the 2016-2017 school year.

 

    The application of the psychological test (Attention Toulouse-Pieron) will be done in a period of 10 minutes. The Toulouse Attention test consists of 124 graphic elements, which consist of signs represented by small squares with dashes arranged in different directions. The task that the evaluator must perform is to cross out the signs that are identical to the three that serve as a sample, it is a test of discrimination, similarities and differences in which selective attention plays an important role.

 

    The basic methodology of the test consists of the following steps:

  1. The evaluator must create a key where figures appear that are exactly the same as the sample figures.

  2. Only 55 of the 124 figures that appear in the test are equal to the three that serve as examples.

  3. The percentage of figures correctly crossed out by the subject is obtained from the total of the 55 correct ones.

  4. The diagnosis of the quality of care is obtained by a percentage of the correct answers.

    The quality of care is measured from the following scale:

  1. Percentage of figures correctly marked between 81-100% (Good quality of attention).

  2. Percentage of figures correctly marked between 70-80% (Attention Declined).

  3. Percentage of correctly marked figures less than 70% (Attention Deficit).

    Implements such as pencil, paper, tape measure, record protocol, stopwatch, calculator or matrix with Excel formulas were used to process the percentages (effectiveness), etc.

 

    To compare the influences between the variables studied in the pre-juvenile basketball players (attention-effectiveness of free throws) the product-moment r of Pearson was applied, this statistical test is a linear association between two quantitative random variables.

 

Results

 

Table 1. Test of effectiveness on free throws

Nr.

Accuracy

Failures

Total

Effectiveness

1

5

5

10

50,00%

2

4

6

10

40,00%

3

6

4

10

60,00%

4

3

7

10

30,00%

5

4

6

10

40,00%

6

2

8

10

20,00%

7

4

6

10

40,00%

8

3

7

10

30,00%

9

5

5

10

50,00%

10

3

7

10

30,00%

11

6

4

10

60,00%

12

7

3

10

70,00%

13

6

4

10

60,00%

14

5

5

10

50,00%

15

6

4

10

60,00%

16

3

7

10

30,00%

17

4

6

10

40,00%

18

6

4

10

60,00%

19

3

7

10

30,00%

20

2

8

10

20,00%

Average

 

 

 

43,50%

 

    Table 1 establishes the effectiveness in the free throws, obtained by processing the percentage frequency between the correct answers and the total of attempts applied in the test (10 attempts). The average obtained for the U17 category studied was 43.50%, indicating that the team has errors in the free throw that exceed 50 percent of the total of attempts. Therefore, the collective effectiveness index, in the opinion of the authors, was Medium-Low.

 

    Some students stood out in terms of effectiveness, for which players 3, 11, 12, 13, 15 and 18 presented an effective percentage equal to or greater than 60 percent.

 

Table 2. Test of applied care (Toulouse-Pieron)

Nr

Total Figures

Correctly scored

Evaluation

Percentage of Attention

1

124

98

Decreased

79,03%

2

124

90

Decreased

72,58%

3

124

101

Good

81,45%

4

124

77

Deficit

62,10%

5

124

88

Decreased

70,97%

6

124

79

Deficit

63,71%

7

124

82

Deficit

66,13%

8

124

78

Deficit

62,90%

9

124

99

Decreased

79,84%

10

124

77

Deficit

62,10%

11

124

102

Good

82,26%

12

124

107

Good

86,29%

13

124

104

Good

83,87%

14

124

100

Good

80,65%

15

124

103

Good

83,06%

16

124

79

Deficit

63,71%

17

124

78

Deficit

62,90%

18

124

101

Good

81,45%

19

124

71

Deficit

57,26%

20

124

69

Deficit

55,65%

Average

 

 

Decreased

71,90%

 

    Table 2 established the attention rate of each basketball player under study according to the Toulouse-Pieron test, establishing an average attendance of 71.90%, an aspect that the team evaluates with a "Decreased" index, an end of average attention that needs to be improved in order to achieve greater percentages in the effectiveness of the free throw. The players with greater effectiveness in free throws mentioned above presented the best indicators of attention described below:

  1. Player 3: 81.45% - Good.

  2. Player 11: 82.26% - Good.

  3. Player 12: 86.29% - Good.

  4. Player 13: 83.87% - Good.

  5. Player 15: 83.06% - Good.

  6. Player 18: 81.45% - Good.

Discussion

 

    In terms of technical-tactical performance in basketball, we agree with numerous authors who demonstrate or theorize about the influence of various variables, such as distance, time, fatigue, coordination, sports technique, biotype and sports specialization (Lopez, 2010, Jiménez-Torres & López Gutiérrez, 2012, Cortez Aguirre, 2014, Yandun, Suasti, Yépez, & Realpe, 2017, Rendón, and others, 2017, Paul & Garg, 2012), among others, for which is useful to establish relevant strategies that model these variables in order to optimize the preparation of the athlete, including those who belong to the field of action of applied psychology (Castelnau-Díaz & Ortega-De León, 2014; Baró, 2011; Calero, Carrión, & Ponce, 2016; Carrión Flores, 2017), and more specifically to the field of action of sports training (López D., 2012; Andrés, 2015).

 

    In the present work, the linear correlation established between the individual effectiveness in free throws and the level of attention determined a high positive correlation (r = 0.944548041) when comparing all the data of the subjects under study, inferring that the higher The concentration of attention will be greater than the technical-tactical effectiveness of the free throw in the sample studied, and vice versa.

 

    This justifies the specific actions taken by various authors to enhance the training of the concentration of attention based on the increase in technical-tactical performance of the basketball player, such as those made by Calero, Carrión, & Ponce, (2016), applied and extended in Carrión Flores (2017) for the case of the improvement of the free throw in school basketballs, and studied by other authors to enhance other aspects of technical-tactical preparation such as grabs (Andrés, 2015) and other components such as those established in Rodríguez & Sáez (2009).

 

Conclusions

 

    The correlation established between the variable effectiveness in the free throws of the pre-juvenile sample under study, with the attention variable, determined a highly significant positive linear correlation. Therefore, it is demonstrated for the present study, that the higher the concentration of attention the greater the effectiveness in free throws of pre-juvenile male basketball players.

 

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Lecturas: Educación Física y Deportes, Vol. 23, Núm. 239, Abr. (2018)

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