Volver a los detalles del artículo Necesidades e intereses en el tiempo libre del equipo de fútbol del Colegio Menor San Francisco de Quito, Categoría Sub 14


Needs and interests in leisure time of Colegio Menor San Francisco of Quito soccer team

Necesidades e intereses en el tiempo libre del equipo de fútbol del Colegio Menor San Francisco de Quito, Categoría Sub 14

Necessidades e interesses no tempo livre do time de futebol do Colégio Menor de San Francisco de Quito

 

Victor Stalin Burgasi Panchi

bstalin07@gmail.com

Mónica Mercedes Cabezas Flores

mmcabezas@espe.edu.ec

 

University of the Army ESPE

(Ecuador)

 

Reception: 02/05/2018 - Acceptance: 04/12/2018

1st Review: 04/09/5018 - 2nd Review: 04/09/2018

Abstract

    Introduction: Sports training is an integral process in which several variables influence, the management of free time can influence the sports performance of soccer players; therefore, the diagnosis of needs and interests is the first step to efficiently manage the process. Objective: Determining the physical-recreational needs and interests of the players of the San Francisco de Quito Junior College, Sub Category 14. Methods: The survey technique is applied to the population of 32 soccer players of the San Francisco de Quito Junior College, Sub Category 14 (11 questions), including his two coaches (3 questions). Results: The most relevant of the variables studied were those related to the tastes and preferences in the choice of various activities by the free time of the players, highlighting technological games (93.75%), listening to music (87.50%) and the practice of sports (71.88%), as well as the segments of the week and the schedules for the practice of physical-recreational activities with specific components of the sport studied. Conclusions: The diagnosis of the physical-recreational needs and interests of the soccer team studied, determined the need to modify the contents in order to increase motivation, implementing components of the process of directing soccer training for the school category that was analyzed, all these components that serve to complement the loads of sport training in function of the increase of the yield.

    Keywords: Needs and interests. Free time. Soccer.

 

Resumen

    Introducción: El entrenamiento deportivo es un proceso integral donde influyen numerosas variables, la gestión del tiempo libre puede influir en el desempeño deportivo de futbolistas; por lo cual, el diagnóstico de las necesidades e intereses es el primer paso para gestionar eficientemente el proceso. Objetivo: Determinar las necesidades e intereses físico-recreativos en los futbolistas del Colegio Menor San Francisco de Quito, Categoría Sub 14. Métodos: Se aplica la técnica de encuesta a la población de 32 futbolistas del Colegio Menor San Francisco de Quito, Categoría Sub 14 (11 preguntas), incluyendo a sus dos entrenadores (3 preguntas). Resultados: De las variables estudiadas, las más relevantes se relacionaron con los gustos y preferencias en la elección de diversas actividades por parte del tiempo libre de los futbolistas, destacándose los juegos tecnológicos (93,75%), escuchar música (87,50%) y la práctica de deportes (71,88%), así como los segmentos de la semana y los horarios para la práctica de actividades físico-recreativas con componentes específicos del deporte estudiado. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico de las necesidades e intereses físico-recreativos del equipo de fútbol estudiado, determinó la necesidad de modificar los contenidos en función de incrementar la motivación, implementando componentes propios del proceso de dirección del entrenamiento del fútbol para la categoría escolar estudiada, componentes que sirvan para complementar las cargas de entrenamiento deportivo en función del incremento del rendimiento.

    Palabras clave: Necesidades e intereses. Tiempo libre. Fútbol.

 

Resumo

    Introdução: O treinamento esportivo é um processo integral em que inúmeras variáveis ​​influenciam, A gestão do tempo livre pode influenciar o desempenho esportivo de jogadores de futebol; portanto, o diagnóstico de necessidades e interesses é o primeiro passo para gerenciar com eficiência o processo. Objetivo: Determinar as necessidades e interesses físico-recreativas nos jogadores de futebol do Colégio Menor San Francisco de Quito, categoria Sub 14. Métodos: técnica de pesquisa é aplicada para a população de 32 jogadores no Colégio Menor San Francisco de Quito, categoria Sub 14 (11 perguntas), incluindo seus dois treinadores (3 questões). Resultados: Das variáveis ​​estudadas, as mais relevantes foram relacionadas aos gostos e preferências na escolha das diversas atividades pelo tempo livre dos jogadores, destacando jogos tecnológicos (93,75%), ouvindo música (87,50%) e a prática de esportes (71,88%), bem como os segmentos da semana e os horários para a prática de atividades físico-recreativas com componentes específicos do esporte estudado. Conclusões: O diagnóstico das necessidades e interesses físico-recreacionais do time de futebol estudado, determinou a necessidade de modificar os conteúdos de forma de aumentar a motivação, implementando componentes do processo de direcionamento do treinamento de futebol para a categoria escolar estudada, componentes que servem para complementar as cargas de treinamento esportivo em função do aumento do rendimento.

    Unitermos: Necessidades e interesses. Tempo livre. Futebol.

 

Lecturas: Educación Física y Deportes, Vol. 23, Núm. 239, Abr. (2018)


 

Introduction

 

    Recreation manifests itself as a necessity of the fundamental importance for man and society (Hall & Page, 2014; Bailey, 2014), noting its benefits in physical, emotional, mental, spiritual and social health (Calero, Klever, Caiza, Rodríguez, & Analuiza, 2016, Morales, Pillajo, Flores, Lorenzo, & Concepción, 2016, Mejía, Morales, Orellana, & Lorenzo, 2017, Rodríguez, and others, 2017, Chávez, Fernández, Rodríguez, Gómez, & Sánchez, 2017; Valarezo, and others, 2017), achieving a perfect balance and contributing to the integral formation of the individual; which is fundamentally considered in the improvement of the quality of life of man, developing values ​​that will lead him to be suitable for society (Guillen, and others, 2017, Morales, and others, 2017), including subjects who participate actively in a process of directing sports training as specific as soccer.

 

    Therefore, it is important that the athlete also choose their free time, how to do it, with whom and when; for this is the space they need to release tensions (Guerra et al., 2017; Kisner, Colby, & Borstad, 2017); since recreation is a need of man who presents himself as a non-conventional means of education, where the individual learns by making his own experiences (Lema, 2015). In addition, the use of recreation as a component of the sports training process, by including the tastes and preferences in the contents of the sports preparation, as well as the possible incorporation of specific physical actions implicit in the physical-recreational contents, could influence positively in sports performance, with emphasis on psychological aspects of relevance, such as motivation, cooperation, socialization and commitment to a common goal.


    Soccer, being a popular sport internationally popular, has been an essential component in the content of various physical-recreational programs for the formation of values ​​(Jasso Reyes et al., 2013), the strengthening of physical abilities in the stage of sports initiation and even in other age ranges for people who practice specialized physical activity (Sánchez-Cañas, Reyes, Stalin, & Casabella, 2017; Gallant, Sherry, & Nicholson, 2015), among other implicit benefits.

 

    The efficient use of free time use by athletes is a factor that has recently been valued as a condition of sports performance in the short, medium and long term. In the correct use of free time in athletes, we must bear in mind the education and training received, providing a space with elements for integral development, leading it to acquire healthy habits of life, which allow it to glimpse and build a life project. That is, training to use this resource, from a formative, creative and playful perspective, allowing it to grow up and develop, prevent, and reduce the risk factors for the onset of chronic diseases in adulthood, favoring the creation of spaces of socialization, integration, self-affirmation (Valle, 2013, Baena Extremera & Rebollo Rico, 2009). The good use of free time represents for the human being a basic need, as essential as sleep, nutrition, work, which allow to build a state of psychological balance of social integration and physical health.

 

    One of the responsible fields for defining aspects such as behavior in training and outside it is sports psychology. The function of a psychologist of physical activity and sport begins with a psychological-sport evaluation that will be adapted to the area of ​​performance (performance sport, basic and initiation or leisure sport, health and free time). It continues with a planning and programming of the intervention to be carried out and continues with the evaluation or control of the work carried out (Gill, Williams, & Reifsteck, 2017, Enríquez, Morales, Castro, & Alcívar, 2017, Knudson, 2013). These functions can be complemented with others related to education, training and research. The evaluation is based on the principles established by the scientific psychology, since this evaluation aims to focus on the behavior and the identification of the conditions that favor it (Pérez Sánchez & others, 1997).

 

    In the management of a sport training process the variability of the factors that influence the process is usually marked, hence the need to establish the relevant diagnoses to detect the influential variables, characterizing the potentials and limitations (Barroso, Calero, & Sánchez, 2015). This is the case of the diagnosis of the needs and interests of each sports team, defining the specificities that comprise it, understanding by necessity the lack of something, and by interest the implicit convenience of a person or group, variables studied that vary in each collective sports in terms of motivational climate and specific needs, among others (Almagro, Sáenz-López, González-Cutre, & Moreno-Murcia, 2011; Elias & Dunning, 2015). 

 

    Given the above, the research aims to determine the physical and recreational needs and interests of the players of the San Francisco de Quito Junior College, Sub Category 14.


Methods

 

    The survey technique is applied to the population of 32 soccer players from the Colegio Menor San Francisco of Quito, Sub Category 14 (male), Republic of Ecuador, and their coaches (2 subjects). The interview was designed by the authors, and applied by four coaches of the aforementioned team, who possess the necessary knowledge to apply it (direct professional experience, 5 years or more), undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in the direct exercise of the profession and relevant competitive results).

 

    A questionnaire was applied directly to the players, forming the same for 11 general and specific questions. Another questionnaire was applied to the coaches who participate directly in the training management process of the players under study, consisting of three questions.

 

    The data has been tabulated with Microsoft Excel 16, applied a percentage frequency that will allow the analysis of content for decision making related to the field of action studied.

 

Results

 

    Table 1 shows a percentage frequency of 40.63% of players with an age of 12 years (AF: 13), while those included in the age of 14 years were 19 players (59.38%). All athletes study in the Colegio Menor San Francisco of Quito, and evidenced the answer to question number two (place of study?). The aforementioned question two, was necessary because the possibility that some athlete study in other schools could show changes in mobility strategy, human and material resources available in other institutions, family characteristics, as well as social variations of belonging to another environment.

 

Table 1. General data of the players.

Ages

Absolute

Absolute Frequency

(AF)

Percentage Frequency (PF)

12 years

32

13

40,63%

14 years

32

19

59,38%

 

    Question three (Place of origin?) Was necessary to characterize specific regional tastes and preferences, which could have marked differences between the regions of Ecuador (mountain range and coast). In this sense, 100% of the sample comes from the Ecuadorian highlands, specifically from Quito, deducting similar tastes and preferences in terms of selection of specific physical-recreational exercises, such as traditional games, among others.

 

Table 2. Specific data of soccer players. Likes and preferences taking into account the activity.

Activities

Absolute

Absolute Frequency (AF)

Precentage Frequency (PF)

Practicing Sports

32

23

71,88%

Watching TV

32

18

56,25%

Going to the museums

32

5

15,63%

Sport and recreational festivals

32

19

59,38%

Games

32

13

40,63%

Listening to music

32

28

87,50%

Reading

32

2

6,25%

Technological games

32

30

93,75%

Camping

32

11

34,38%

Flying objects

32

12

37,50%

Excursions

32

6

18,75%

Going to the beach

32

10

31,25%

Resting

32

17

53,13%

Different physical activities

32

4

12,50%

Others

32

7

21,88%

 

    Table 2 forms the answers to question number four (Likes and preferences for physical-recreational activities indicated in his free time). The most indicated answers belong to technological games (93.75%), listening to music (87.50%) and practicing sports (71.88%).

 

Table 3. Specific data of the soccer players. Schedules of choice for leisure activities.

Time of the day

Absolute

Absolute Frequency (AF)

Percentage Ferquency (PF)

Morning

32

4

12,50%

Afternoon

32

20

62,50%

Night

32

21

65,63%

 

    Table 3 shows the players' choice of timetables to practice physical-recreational activities as part of their free time (question five). Most of the players selected the night schedule (65.63%), without much difference with the afternoon schedule (62.50%). The morning schedule was only selected by four players (12.50%), a schedule that for different reasons is not available to the highest percentage of athletes.


Table 4. Specific data of the players. Segment of the week.

Days of the week

Absolute

Absolute Frequency (AF)

Percentage Frequency (PF)

Saturday

32

27

84,38%

Sunday

32

19

59,38%

 

    Table 4 specifies the segment of the week selected to perform the physical-recreational activities as part of the free time of the players (question six), specifying the weekends (Saturday and Sunday), and excluding the rest of the days of the week (FP: 0.00%), justified by the limited time available for free time, given that those days athletes have to attend classes and sports training. Saturday was the most selected (84.38%), followed by Sunday (59.38%), regarding the variables studied.

 

Table 5. Specific data of the players. Place of realization of the activities.

Place

Absolute

Absolute Frequency (AF)

Percentage Frequency (PF)

Home

32

3

9,38%

Sport facilities

32

27

84,38%

School

32

19

59,38%

Field

32

26

81,25%

Recreational facilities

32

22

68,75%

Others

32

2

6,25%

 

    Table 5 shows the selection of the essential elective places (question seven), obtaining the highest percentage of sports facilities as an essential physical-recreational center (84.38%), followed by activities in the field (81.25%) and recreational facilities (68.75%). The study center was also selected in a large percentage (59.38%), and the rest of the places presented a percentage lower than 50% (Home: 9.38% and Others: 6.25%).

 

Table 6. Specific data of the players. Participation in sports and recreational festivals.

Participation

Absolute

Absolute Frequency (AF)

Percentage Frequency (PF)

Yes

32

20

62,50%

No

32

 

0,00%

He doesn´t know

32

12

37,50%

 

    Table 6 specifies the responses on the participation of athletes in sports and recreational festivals (question eight), being positive in 20 players (62.50%), negative in zero percent of cases, and unsafe in 12 subjects (37.50%).

Table 7. Specific data of the players. How would you like to participate in sports and recreational festivals.

Wish to do it

Absolute

Absolute Frequency (AF)

Percentage Frequency (PF)

As audience

32

13

40,63%

In an active way

32

18

56,25%

As the planning person

32

1

3,13%

 

    Table 7 shows the answers about how they wish to participate in sports and recreational festival activities (question nine), showing a higher percentage in the choice of the variable "Actively" (56.25%), followed by "How spectator "(40.63%), and with the lowest percentage of organizer (3.13%).

 

Table 8. Specific data of the players. How do you think the participation of the student population is in recreational activities at your school?

Participation

Absolute

Absolute Frequency (AF)

Percentage Frequency (PF)

Huge

32

7

21,88%

Notable

32

2

6,25%

Less

32

21

65,63%

None

32

 

0,00%

 

    Table 8 shows the criteria of the players about the participation of the student community in the recreational activities scheduled by the Colegio Menor San Francisco of Quito (question 10), considering the middle level (65.63%) fundamentally. On the belief of why the participation of the student community in the recreational activities implemented in their school is considered of medium or low level (question 11), table 9 shows that the fundamental cause is the little free time that exists (93.75%), little interest (12.50%) and ignorance (15.35%).

 

Table 9. Specific data of the players. Why do you think there is little, no or no participation in recreational activities by the student community?

Criteria

Absolute

Absolute Frequency (AF)

Percentage Frequency (PF)

Few Time

32

30

93,75%

Less advertising

32

 

0,00%

Less interest

32

4

12,50%

No resources

32

 

0,00%

It is not known

32

5

15,63%

There is no other option

32

 

0,00%

Others

32

 

0,00%

 

    About the specific data surveyed to the coaches, question one was applied: What are the activities that are offered to the athletes for the occupation of their free time? For which, they responded that they are the following:

  1. Go to museums.

  2. Flying machines.

  3. Excursions.

  4. Physical activity.

  5. Others of lesser importance.

    The remaining two questions asked to the three coaches surveyed, included how they considered the participation of the athletes in the recreational offer offered by the school, and included, if the participation was not expected what would be the causes that motivated them? All the coaches agreed that the participation in the recreational offers implemented by the school is poor, while the fundamental causes in this participation were qualitatively the non-existence of correspondence with the physical-recreational activities that the athletes prefer, as in the planning for their Free time does not meet those specified in table 2.

 

Discussion

 

    Bearing in mind the bibliographical consultation carried out, the diagnosis in sport begins with a psychological-sport evaluation, including an intervention planning and programming, which together with the concrete control of the essential contents of the sports training management process (Gill, Williams, & Reifsteck, 2017; Enríquez, Morales, Castro, & Alcívar, 2017; Knudson, 2013; Pérez Sánchez & others, 1997). A prior evaluation like the one presented in the research will delimit the variables before starting an intervention process, an aspect that allows processes to be optimized (Barroso, Calero, & Sánchez, 2015).

 

    Some needs and interests diagnosed, related to the tastes and preferences for the choice of general activities (table 2) for the studied population (technological games: 93.75% and listening to music: 87.50%) will be important for the design of the physical-recreational contents to be applied in the soccer team studied, prioritizing in the case of technological games those of an active type, an aspect that can favor joint mobility (Papastergiou, 2009, Gerling, Livingston, Nacke, & Mandryk, s.f.) and they have been relatively new aspects in research applied to recreation (Bryce, 2001), among others to enhance the balance between rest and assimilation of training loads as part of organic bioadaptation (Matveev, 1985; Casamichana, Castellano, Calleja-Gonzalez, San Román, & Castagna, 2013; Drew & Finch, 2016).

 

    The practice of sports (71.88%) was highly voted, a variable of importance that demonstrates a high level of motivation present in the study sample by sports practice, regardless of soccer. The most voted percentages next belonged to the activities corresponding to sports and recreational festivals (59.38%), and the passive activities of watching television (56.25%) and rest (53.13%), the latter of great presence in the Ecuadorian environment, with emphasis on untrained subjects, as established in Chávez & Sandoval, (2016).

 

    The rest of the activities had a percentage in their election lower than 50 percent, being useful to point out that at least 7 players selected the activity "Other", an aspect that is usually relevant when trying to design individualizing programs, with a view to achieving an individual motivation according to the requirements and needs of the sports team studied, where the best schedules to carry out the activities must also be borne in mind (table 3), which for the specific case of the present investigation the optimal choice was in the schedule of the afternoon (62.50%), and the choice of the segment of the week, which was established with preference on Saturdays (table 4: 84.38%).

 

    Another aspect of relevance is the selection of the optimal place to perform physical-recreational activities with specific soccer content (table 5). When there is a varied choice of high percentages of the physical-sporting and recreational places or spaces designated to carry out the activities, the coaches will have the advantage of carrying out the activities depending on the possibilities of each center, varying the choice to achieve high motivation to exist lower monotony (Benítez, Cholotio, & Calero, 2015; Benítez & Calero, 2016), applying physical-recreational actions as part of the direction of sports training.

 

    Another aspect of relevance to consider is the short time available for athletes to carry out activities in free time, as established in Table 9, 93.75% of the population studied considered such justification for the student community not to participate in the physical-recreational activities called by the School, an aspect confirmed by the coaches in the process of directing the sports training of the players, which is an aspect related to the motivational climate (Almagro, Sáenz-López, González-Cutre, & Moreno-Murcia, 2011; Elias & Dunning, 2015).

 

    In a general sense, as a first step in the process of directing the training of footballers in the Under 14 category, the preliminary diagnosis of the variables studied in this article will allow the optimal design of physical-recreational actions that include their own components, as specified by Rabaza, & Batista (2011).

 

Conclusions

 

    It is possible to diagnose the physical-recreational needs and interests of the soccer players of the San Francisco de Quito Junior College, Sub Category 14. The 11 questions asked to the soccer players, and the three questions asked to the coaches, confirmed the need to modify the contents of the recreational programs, guiding actions to implement physical-recreational activities of greater motivation for the sample studied, incorporating components of the process of directing soccer training for the school category studied, components that serve to complement the loads of sports training based on the increase of performance.

 

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Lecturas: Educación Física y Deportes, Vol. 23, Núm. 239, Abr. (2018)