Professional induction and its training programs: a chronological analysis
La inducción profesional docente y sus programas formativos: un análisis cronológico
*Docente Titular, Auxiliar, Tiempo Completo, Coordinador de la Carrera de Trabajo Social
Facultad de Ciencias Sociales y Humanas, Universidad Central del Ecuador.
**Rector Unidad Educativa Municipal “Sebastián de Benalcázar”
***Docente Titular, Auxiliar, Tiempo Completo, Carrera de Comercio y Administración
Facultad de Filosofía, Letras y Ciencias de la Educación, Universidad Central del Ecuador
****Rector Unidad Educativa Municipal “Quitumbe”
*****Docente Titular, Auxiliar Tiempo Parcial. Facultad de Filosofía y Letras
Universidad Central del Ecuador. Rector de la Institución Educativa
Municipal Julio Moreno Peñaherrera, Amaguaña
M.Sc. Antonio Rubén Chicaiza Farinango*
M.Sc. Juan Rodrigo Proaño Vaca**
MSc. Karlita Elizabeth Muñoz Correa***
M.Sc. Fernando Ramiro Cueva Pérez****
MSc. Luis Enrique Chicaiza Peneida*****
Continuing education is an essential element in the professional development of recent graduates, the article offers a chronological analysis of research experiences and educational practice in the development of training programs in the stage of professional induction, in addition to its conceptualization, conception And development in different fields, highlighting its procedural, contextual and systemic character, which allow, from the characterization of the formation of degree, to conceive of programs of continuous training, with emphasis on the characteristics of the work position that the recent graduate performs and in total Support from a mentor or mentor, who leads or conducts their professional development.
Keywords: Professional induction. Training programs. Professional performance.
La educación continua constituye un elemento esencial en el desarrollo profesional de los recién graduados, el artículo ofrece un análisis cronológico de las experiencias investigativas y la práctica educativa en el desarrollo de programas de capacitación en la etapa de inducción profesional, además de su conceptualización, concepción y desarrollo en diferentes ámbitos, destacando su carácter procesal, contextual y sistémico, que permitan, a partir de caracterizar la formación de grado, concebir programas de formación continua, con énfasis en las características del puesto de trabajo que desempeña el recién graduado y en total apoyo de un mentor o tutor, que quía o conduce su desarrollo profesional.
Palabras clave: Inducción profesional. Programas de inducción. Desempeño profesional.
Reception: 01/14/2017 - Acceptance: 04/16/2017
1st Review: 03/19/2017 - 2nd Review: 04/10/2017
|Lecturas: Educación Física y Deportes, Revista Digital. Buenos Aires, Año 22, Nº 227, Abril de 2017. http://www.efdeportes.com/||
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Permanent formation of recent graduates from the universities is a necesity determined by science and technology‘s development (Duffy & Jonassen, 2013; Januszewski & Molenda, 2013; Bates, 2014), the changes on the educational systems and the human component, and as a result, their proffessional skills (Arnold & Boggs, 2015; Karim et al, 2012). Among the most important ways to achieve permanent formation, it can be mentioned the professional superation, taking into consideration the definition that Russell & Korthagen (2013), and other authors like Hargreaves, Lieberman, Fullan & Hopkins (2014), Green, Camilli & Elmore (2012) y van-der Hofstadt & Gras (2013) give of it.
Professional induction is a stage on professional development (Rozas & Vergara, 2013), which is inmediately contextualized after the university graduation, and professional superation that is carried out on this stage, is identified with the so called programs for professional induction.
The treatment to the new teacher’s problems, from the conceptions of professional induction, has been focused from two positions:
1. First: superation or training, with the objective of improving the teacher’s skills by using induction programs to get to the practice.
2. Second: the new teacher’s socialization on the educational context, with the objective of achieving a rightful insertion at work and avoiding professional desertion.
As a compliment for the objective and development of the investigation, the main used methods are: the history–logic, analysis-synthesis, the induction-deduction and documentary analysis. The analysis-synthesis and induction-deduction were use on the disintegration, synthesis and logic followed to obtain the scientific knowledgement related to the process of professional induction. The history-logic method was used to study the treatment that has been given to recent graduates new teachers on different stages through history, it was also usefull to know about the previous records on professional induction and induction programs. The documentary analysis allowed to obtain information about politics and actions carried out in the Republic of the Equator on the educational sector nowadays; which are a way of trainnig the new teachers regarding this sector.
Pursuing this objective, the article offers a chronological analysis of research experiences and educational practice on the development of trainnig programs on the stage of professional induction.
Induction and proffessional development
The teacher’s professional development has a procedural representation, and has been investigated by different authors. They all match on pointing that this development goes through different stages:
According to Villar (2009) the profesional development is manifested on three stages: induction, renovation and redirection.
Imbernón (1994) considers that according to the tipology of the context there exist a first stage of basic formation and professional socialization, a second one of professional induction and practical socialization and a third one, which was named perfecting stage.
The authors coincide in identifying a stage after the graduation from initial formation in these two time lapses, which is characterized by the beginning of the new teacher’s professional life in a context that is well konwn by them, though they can find another kind of relationships associated to the educational environment. In addition, they recognize, in this stage, that the recent graduate shows some deficiencies due to the imperative of growing up regarding the educational practice. The most common international definition for this stage in teacher’s development is professional induction, the work of the authors Marcelo García, Vera, Villar Angulo and Molina Ruiz in Spain, Veenman and Van Manen in Netherlands, Wilson, Borko, Daril Siedentop and O’Sullivan in the United States of America, Vonk in Norguey and Burke and Tisher in England (Castillejo, 1999) supports this statement.
Wilson y D¢ Arcy (quoted by Villar, 1990) define professional induction as “The process in which school carries out a systematic support program for teachers to introduce them in the profession, help them to express their problems in a way that strengthens their professional autonomy and make easier their continuing professional development.”
Borko (quoted by Marcelo, 1993) considers professional induction as:
The period of the first years of teaching, in which teachers must make the transition from regular students to teachers. It is a period of tension and learning in which the new teachers must adcquire professional knowledgement and certain personal balance.
Professional induction in teaching, is the time during the first years, in which teachers must make the transition from students to teachers. It is a period of tension and intensive learning in generally unknown contexts; during this period, the beginners must adquire professional knowledgemnet and certain personal balance to make an efficient work in the classroom. This issue has a distinctive and determined nature to achieve a coherent and evolutive professional development (Marcelo, Gallego-Domínguez & Mayor, 2016; Marcelo, Burgos, Murillo, López, Gallego-Domínguez, Mayor, Herrera & Jáspez, 2016; Rodríguez, 2015; Marcelo, 2006; Rodríguez, Granda, Gutiérrez & Gómez, 2016).
The previous definitions recognize professional induction as a process that occurs during the stage after finishing the initial formation. They identify the recent graduates, not as a full product, but a subject in constant evolution and development, who needs a continuing formation to adquire professional knowledgement. Nevertheless in the first definition, it is only given responsibility for the continuing formation of recent graduates to the school where the subject plays the teacher’s roll. The statement doesn’t take into account the systematic and controlling labour that the university must make along the student’s process to become a teacher, once he graduates. This can be an evidence that there exist a divorce between the educational centers and the universities, as a result, this issue has determined the formation and development of the new teacher, to be less pertinent that it could be.
The investigations about professional induction have been orientated in two perspectives: the investigation of problems the new teachers have while leading the teaching-learning process and the investigation about the socializing process in the educational context. The first ones of these have been more studied than the others.
Marcelo García has made reference to the researches that has had its centre on researching about young teacher’s problems as leaders of the teaching-learning process, by the authors Barr and Rudisill in 1930, and Jhonson and Umstattd in 1932, both in the United States. These studies coincided in identifying some problems related to school discipline, school motivations, the organization of the work and the use of teaching materials. The research made by Dropkin and Taylor in 1963 found out, in addition, that there exists some other problems related to the methods for teaching, the evaluation of the student’s learning process and the docent planning.
The study, made by Simon Veenman in 1984 in Netherlands, that included samples from Eastern Germany, England, Netherlands, Australia, Canada, Austria, Switzerland and Finland summarized 24 problems in the roll the new teachers play as leaders of the teaching-learning process. Among those, he mentioned: the control of discipline, the student’s motivations, the attention to individual differences, the school evaluation, the master of teaching methods, texts and school materials. Veenman’s work, that had as its main objective, to make a compared study of the new teacher’s main problems, demonstrated that they all have similar manifestations in different contexts (Veenman, 1984 quoted by Castillejo, 1999).
Another research, focused on the study of young teacher’s problems while leading the teaching-learning process, was made by Vonk, in Norway, in 1987, in which it was concluded that there are two levels to clasify these problems: a microlevel related to contents and teaching material, the organization of activities during the class, the discipline and control of the students and school motivation; in addition there is a macrolevel, in which the author points to problems with school planning and the relationships with his colleagues, the principal and the parents. The main discovering Vonk made was clasifying the new teacher’s problems, that allowed a curricular change at the university formation (Villar, 1990; González, Araneda, Hernández & Lorca, 2005).
Between 1988 and 1994 Marcelo García, in Spain, developed a study about the new teachr’s problems, in which he made a theoretical method for profesional induction, that characterized the mentor’s work and defined both subject’s rolls in the process (Marcelo, 1988; Marcelo, 1994).
O’ Sullivan’s researches with new teachers of Phisical Education in the United States, in 1989, allowed him to conclude that during the first year, the teacher’s attention is more orientated towards discipline than teaching, where the classe’s organization is often the main concern and the new teacher’s biggest anxiety source. The author proposes and validates a program for induction that supports itself in the development of organizative skills by the new teachers, in order to get a higher level for controllind the school discipline (O’Sullivan, 1989 quoted by Castillejo, 1999).
Molina (1994), in Spain, made a study that overcame the characterization of former works, by indicating a strategy of formation through collaborative formulas inside the educational centers where the teachers work. The thesis that the recent graduates get some possitive advances when developing superation action along with some other recent graduates was validated in this study.
The works developed by Daril Siedentop in the United Sates, with new teachers (Siedentop, 1998) allowed the researcher to define that these teachers are easily integrated into the school’s life, that the school discipline is the dominating element of their concern along their first teaching year and they show some difficulties to actively participate in the stuctures that make important decisions in the school.
A common result of all these investigations was recognizing the need of continuing the teacher’s professional development, after their graduation, through actions that allow them to solve their own problems. Nevertheless, the researchs also have a common limitation when considerating profesional induction just as a way of training them in the inmediate solution of problems, without taking into account their professional interests and a coherent principle to continue the professional development from the degree formation.
The investigations about the socializing process of young teachers into the educational context, as a field that belongs to professional induction, began in the 1960 ‘ s decade. The works of Lortie in 1973, Zeichner in 1985, Gooman in 1988, Daril Siedentop in 1998 in United States and Villar Angulo in Sapin, in the 90’s highlight in the study about this issue.
Lortie (quoted by Villar, 1990) highlighted that “Learning how to be a teacher is a complex process of socialization that implies thoughts, feelings, perceptions, values and actions of a teacher”. The society’s influence that promotes individuality as a value, has provoked new teachers to feel isolated sometimes, even in the new school where he works.
The studies about new teacher’s socialization in the period of professional induction have revealed a group of probelms in the process. The most common are pointed to be:
Lack of collaboration between teachers,
Lack of support around new teachers,
New teachers are mostly doing great responsibility jobs,
The educational institutions have, in many cases, the same expectations on recent graduates that they have on the experienced ones.
The aspects listed above, they are referred to cooperative superation actions, in which the graduates can boost social relationships with their co-workers, their tutors, the community or the students. All these are a strong influence when making their work.
Professional induction as a practical process, has its representations in the educational context. All the issues related to the time of duration of this period and the induction programs to solve the deficiencies, highlight in the literature used to make this study.
In the research made by Vera (quoted by Marcelo, 1988) in Spain, it is considered that the stage of the teacher as a beginner is the one during the first three years of exercising the profession. It is in this time that he knows a new reality in which he must face multiple problems, anguishes and insecurities as an evidence of the lack of knowledge related to his professional roll.
The beginner’s problems are an imitation, without critics, of known conducts evidenced in other teacher’ s behavoir: the isolation from the rest of the co-workers, the difficulties to share the adquired knowledgement during the formation stage, the development of a technical conception referred to the teaching process, the leading roll in the classroom to maintain the order, the attention to the student’ s diversity and the difficulties to be recognized in the teacher’s group. Along with the initial concerns, they feel motivaded about the beginning of their professional life, for discovering and learning (Rodríguez, 2015; Marcelo, 2006; Rodríguez, Granda, Gutiérrez & Gómez, 2016; Vezub & Alliaud 2012; Marcelo & Vaillant, 2009; Marcelo & Vaillant, 2015).
As a solution to the new teacher’s problems, many researchers have proposed induction programs. The results of Zeichner in the United States (1988) (quoted by Vera, 1988) related to the application of specific formation programs from the universitarian environment, define its final propose as: the search of an easier way for new teachers to adapt and integrate themselves to the existent school culture, by giving them the access to the school’s ecology, which means, all the intentions, structures, curriculum, pedagogy and evaluation system. Huling-Austin in 1990 (quoted by Villar, 1990) has described three generic proposes for indcution programs: the improvement of teacher’s acting, the increasing of retention of new teachers during the years of induction and the promotion of personal and professional well-being.
The objectives of induction programs according Tisher (quoted by Marcelo, 1994) are:
To develop the teacher’s knowledgement related to school and the educational system, to increase the new teacher’s comprehension, to give help services and resources inside the school and help them to apply the knowledgement he owes or might obtain in this period.
In the studies made by O’Sullivan (quoted by Siedentop, 1998) in the United States with new teachers, it is said that the objectives of these programs must be taken on the way of achieving an efficient work of the new teacher.
Summarizing, the objectives of professional induction programs with young teachers are: to improve their professional work, to achieve a step by step insertion (non traumtic) to the new work environment, to increase work retention, to give them knowledgement about school and the school system, to givem them help, orientation, advice and to make posible the personal and professional satisfaction.
The contents of induction programs depend on the objectives under these programs are designed. As a result of the analysis of induction programs during this investigation, it was concluded that the most regular contents are related to pedagogical, psicological and practical issues specialized on the exercise of the profession.
Induction programs are developed, in many cases, under the guide of the mentor teacher. There exist some programs which are only based on the tutor labour such as those that are known as coaching, made by Moffet (quoted by Marcelo, 1994). Nevertheless, the concept of tutor that Moffet proposes has limited the action of this subject because only university teachers, methodologists or supervisors and principals are selected to make this work. This is an aspect that in the schools of the Republic of the Equator has some disadvantages while not considerating that important the help that may represent the labour of teachers who work in the same place the recent graduates do, who tend to know better the new teacher’s needs and personal interests and the functions they have to do in their Jobs. These aspects clearly put them in an advantageous position to become tutors.
As this analysis indicates, in the experience, the process of professional induction is developed through specific programs which are very valuable in the solution of new teacher’s problems. Nevertheless it has been identified some problems and insufficiencies in its implementation design such as: the lack of responsibility, the formation centers assume during the following process after the students graduate and begin to work, besides it is frequent that the educational centers where the recent graduates work feel no responsible for the continuing formation the new teachers must experience. The personal interests of the new teachers are not always considered in the determination of the content of the induction programs. Generally, the different induction programs in which a graduate is involved, are not properly related one to the other and they are not designed with a gradual approach, which is an evidence of the absence of a systematic and integrator point of view during the conception and implementation of these programs. In most of the researches, the programs are not applied during all the time declared for the induction process and its implementation during the first year of work. It is also pretty common that the teachers who work in the very same schools as the recent graduates are not taken as an option to make the tutor work.
Nowadays in the Republic of the Equator, the 113th article of the Organic Law of Intercultural Education stablishes that the professional of the educational system must participate in an induction program within the two first years after the beginning of a public career. It is an exigency to obtain a superior category (Ministry of Education, 2012). To ensure this may be possible, the Ministry of Education organizes courses or induction programs for all new teachers that result as winners in the process I want to be a teacher, as part of the Merit and Opposition Contests (Ministry of Education, 2015).
It is very regrettable that most of the educational centers lack of induction process for the teachers who begin to work in these centers. The first interaction with their new co-workers is when they participate in the training courses before the beginning of the lective period and from that moment on they will have to “defend themselves as they can” in their work (Rodríguez, 2015; Marcelo, 2006; Rodríguez, Granda, Gutiérrez & Gómez, 2016).
It is very important to know that as a strength, in the Equator, it is stablished by the Secretary of Superior Education, Science, Technology and Innovation, that there exist a process of following the recent graduates in each one of the careers that are developed in the Multitechnical Universities and Schools of the country with the objective of perfecting the formation process or third level. Nevertheless it is a limitation for fourth level because the data of this study are not always well used in the process of professional development of the recent graduate.
After making this analysis, it is assumed as pertinent and necessary to carry out induction programs:
To consider professional induction as an initial stage of professional development in which the training actions must act in the formation, the development and consolidation of knowledgement, habits, capacities and values and contributes to the socializing process of new teachers.
To prepare the contents of induction programs from the diagnose of individual and group needs to determine as basic dimensions to carry out these programs, the characterization of the state of formation achieved during the degree formation and the characterization of the state of proficiency the recent graduates have at work.
To identify the tutor or mentor as a responsible subject with the planning, coordination, regulation, control and evaluation of the superation actions in which each young professional must participate.
To ensure a continuous, systematic, gradual, flexible and differenced approach during the design and implementation of the induction program.
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