Influence of vocabulary acquisition in the development
of oral expression in English language. Didactic guide
La influencia de la adquisición de vocabulario en el desarrollo de la expresión oral
en el idioma inglés. Diseño de una guía didáctica con vocabulario y expresiones
*Universidad de Guayaquil
Facultad de Filosofía
Escuela de Lenguas y Lingüística
**Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE
MSc. Jacqueline Elizabeth López López*
Ing. Johnny Segundo Campoverde López*
MSc. Lizmary Feriz Otaño*
MSc. Milton Patricio Rodríguez Rojas**
This investigation studies the influence of vocabulary in the oral expression. For providing some useful vocabulary, banks for the teachers to be applied with students to learn and use them when they work in activities related to oral expression. The authors of this research noticed that students did not want to get immerse in some speaking exercises provided by the student book, the students feel unsafe about what they are going to produce and the idea of the topic to be developed. In addition, teachers have problems now working with vocabulary during the development of speaking activities because of the vocabulary knowledge from the students, they need to translate each word in L1 and it produces confusion in the students when they are speaking in L2. Different scientific methods were employed such as analysis-synthesis, inductive-deductive, historical-logical, and systemic-structural-functional. To illustrate these ideas, the techniques and tools used were direct observation, interviews, and a survey and chi square. The principal aim of this research it is to show the deficiency students have to progress in one of the most important skills in learning a language and for communicating their ideas following enounces from the book or the teacher. Although the numberless hours teachers have, it is never enough if the students do not obtain an adequate vocabulary bank in their hands, is for that reason that they have to keep in mind that any material to make their students to go to the right way and to continue their progress will always be the best platform. The most important donation is the designing of a didactic guide full of vocabulary and common expressions for teenagers from eighth grade for the development of the Oral expression.
Keywords: Vocabulary banks. Oral expression. Speaking skill. Didactic guide.
Esta investigación estudia la influencia del vocabulario en la expresión oral. Con el fin de proporcionar algunos bancos de vocabulario útiles para los profesores, los cuales se aplicarán a los estudiantes para aprender y hacer uso de ellos cuando trabajan en actividades relacionadas con la habilidad de hablar. Los autores de esta investigación se dieron cuenta que los estudiantes no quieren estar inmersos en algunos ejercicios de habla proporcionados por el libro del alumno, los alumnos se sienten inseguros acerca de lo que van a producir y la idea del tema a desarrollar. También los maestros tienen problemas a la hora de trabajar con vocabularios en el momento de desarrollar una actividad de hablar debido a los vocabularios de conocimiento por parte de los estudiantes, tienen que traducir cada palabra en L1 y esto produce confusión en los estudiantes cuando están hablando en L2. Diferentes métodos científicos fueron empleados tales como: análisis-síntesis, inductivo-deductivo, histórico-lógico y sistémico-estructural-funcional. Para ilustrar estas ideas, las técnicas y herramientas utilizadas fueron: observación directa, entrevistas y una encuesta y chic cuadrado. El objetivo principal de esta investigación es mostrar la deficiencia que los estudiantes tienen, lo cual les impide progresar en una de las habilidades más importantes en el aprendizaje de un idioma y para comunicar sus ideas necesita del libro o del maestro. Aunque los maestros cuentan con innumerables horas de clase, este factor nunca será suficiente si los estudiantes no obtienen un banco de vocabulario adecuado en sus manos, es por eso que deben tener en cuenta que cualquier material podrá hacer que sus estudiantes aprendan de manera correcta y para continuar su progreso este estudio siempre será la mejor plataforma. Nuestra donación más importante es el diseño de una guía didáctica llena de bancos de vocabulario y expresiones comunes para los adolescentes de Octavo Año de Educación Básica para el desarrollo de la expresión oral del idioma Inglés.
Palabras clave: Banco de vocabulario. Expresión oral. Habilidad oral. Guía didáctica.
Reception: 08/17/2016 - Acceptance: 10/4/2016
1st Review: 09/20/2016 - 2nd Review: 10/01/2016
|Lecturas: Educación Física y Deportes, Revista Digital. Buenos Aires, Año 21, Nº 221, Octubre de 2016. http://www.efdeportes.com/||
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Learning a foreign language is an important resource for the communication at any field. The use of English as a way to share ideas, give opinions and interchange information is an important defense for the students in their personal and professional lives.
However, the acquisition of a new language includes the development of the four skills Writing, Listening, Speaking and Reading (Cohen, 2014; Herrell & Jordan, 2015) but not all the time all these skills are developed equally and at the same time so that it is necessary to reinforce and make emphasis to the one that it is not well developed. It is therefore important to establish an effective strategy for ex diagnosis before beginning a teaching-educational and research project (Barroso, Calero & Sánchez, 2015; Barroso, Sánchez, Calero, Recalde, Montero & Delgado, 2015).
Generally speaking is one of the most effective skills on English Language’s teaching. This skill is a preferred resource now of teaching any foreign language also in the educational system.
While the use of an appropriate vocabulary could be a great problem for the students when they want to perform an educational activity and even on the practice of the English Language and it is the principal factor of this research (Huang, Huang, Huang & Lin, 2012; Carter & McCarthy, 2014; Elizabeth, Barahona, del Rocío & Manzano, 2016), the main purpose as to find a solution to this problematic and the proposal was created by a deep study of the students’ need.
The topic of this thesis is “Influence of the Acquisition of Vocabulary in Oral expressions” as a support resource for English Teaching to learners. This study has as a main objective to improve the communicative activities of students from eighth General Basic Year from “Dr. Luis Felipe Borja Pérez” High School, through the survey could be gotten direct results from deficiencies in the English language based on their own contexts of this level.
Nowadays, the development of the language in English had been an important factor for the world and is necessary that the students of the country could obtain a good level of vocabulary especially in their oral expression (Alsagoff, McKay, Hu & Renandya, 2012; Orwell, 2013; Pennycook, 2014).This problem was set in the Eighth General Basic Year, at “Dr. Luis Felipe Borja Pérez” High School, which is located in a poor area of the city. They receive a poor level of English and they do not have the enough practice for having an intermediate level in oral expression, is for that reason that this subject could be difficult for their comprehension because they do not understand the native expressions. This project is on a methodological design based on a field, bibliographic and statistics research
Therefore, the students cannot express their ideas in a clear way; they cannot take dictation, write words, identify the correct grammar rules and learn new vocabulary in the English language.
The necessity of didactic resources is a problem because the students do not have an adequate material for learning words, which are used in a daily way. All these factors produce a necessity of interest to the students now of learning a new language.
To examine the influence of the acquisition of vocabulary in oral expression, through a bibliographic study, analyze field, in order to design a didactic guide for the benefit of students of eighth general basic year at “Dr. Luis Felipe Borja Pérez” High School.
The aim of this project was to investigate the development of the four skills in English in the public institutions, where several difficulties were found in the “Dr. Luis Felipe Borja Perez” High School, this institution has as a mission that graduates have to become into leaders in the transformation of technical education, through innovative programs and research skills of high quality that promote the community development in the scientific and technical knowledge, sequentially acquired and practiced according to the requirements of the productive sector and as a vision in this institution is to train young people with quality and warmth, able to adapt to the requirements of today's world, liveries and lovers of democracy, prepared for life and leadership capable of providing solutions that contribute to the development of the society, applying values in all areas, that operate with positive attitude, critical thinking, reflective opinions and creativity.
“Dr. Luis Felipe Borja Pérez” High School is located in “La Prosperina” Cooperative, under the supervision of Lcda. Violeta Ávila A. MSc., who is the principal of the Institution and the responsible of the progress of the school consequently she is always thinking on the best programs accordance to the requirements of the development of the education around the country and the world, this study was focused specially of the students of Eighth General Basic Year of the institution.
During the Teaching Practice was noticed the necessity of vocabulary on the oral expression of the students in the classroom at the moment of expressing the students’ idea, is for that reason that this investigation was carried out to find a solution to this problem and propose a useful material where could be possible the development of the lexical in teenagers between 12 and 15 years old, the objective through this proposal is to find a solution to the lexical development of the teenagers and to obtain the best results on that field.
Some of the factors that influenced the difficulty to develop the oral communication in English were:
Necessity of didactic resources in vocabulary field.
Absence of oral expression in class activities.
Incomprehension of vocabulary in context.
The aim was to examine the influence of the acquisition of vocabulary skills to speak, through a literature review, analysis and field, to design a guide. The specific objective is to define the influence of the acquisition of vocabulary skills to speak, through a study. Analyze the development of oral expression through studies, analysis, student surveys and interviews with experts.
According to Meara (1980): "the learners have mentioned that foreign language vocabulary acquisition as the main source of trouble learning the language." (p. 221). It means that learners consider learning vocabulary is the principal trouble in learning process.
Furthermore, within the study of vocabulary learning strategies follows the classification of Levin and Pressley (1985):
Repeat strategy does not pose any degree of preparation by the apprentice. They consist simply of thinking, speaking aloud or write the same word several times in order to memorize it.
Sensory strategies are based on the idea that the vocabulary better retained if processed through different channels and motoric sensory experiences.
Semantic strategies are based on the semantic processing of new vocabulary; in its analysis and recognition of the "natural" associations, you have with the rest of the lexicon, and in enhancing these relations to improve memorization.
Mnemonic strategies are the establishment of relations "artificial", partnerships created on purpose in order to improve memorization. In accordance with Cohen (1987) defined that: "the value of mnemonics is that makes the student perform an analysis of the word mental activity to create images or" scenarios "contributes to the formation of connections that improve memory.” (p. 45)
The learning of new words is influenced by several factors such as the frequency of occurrence of the word, care provided, prior knowledge and the order they appear, so that by learning the vocabulary there is a process ranging from aspects and nuances a term as indicated Laufer (1998) mentioned: “We realize that progress in vocabulary learning is not only a quantitative issue. Knowledge of words may progress from superficial too deep at various stages of learning”. (p. 255). Laufer sustains that vocabulary resources produce an immense develops in education system.
Likewise, Pérez (1999) from the point of view psycholinguistic said "vocabulary acquisition involves three different processes: input, storage and retrieval." (p. 265)
Input: The words are retained in short-term memory, depending on the depth to which the entry is processed, this happens in circumstances of attention and then goes to storage.
Storage: It is that information is stored in semantic fields, and elements are organized by associating phonological similarities: structure, accent, sounds and images with words to achieve retention.
Recovery: After the above processes, the words are searched and retrieved quickly.
Setting these processes, Pérez shows three primordial systems for working in vocabulary section related to the attention of the learners using terms and phonological aspects.
There different Types of Vocabulary which are classified according to the frequency of its application.
Usual vocabulary: The set of terms that are used on the street or in a daily life’s speaking, it consists in the common words used by any English native speaker. It is composed of 12,913 words, which are necessary in basic education.
Common vocabulary: Those words make up the usual vocabulary, it is normally used in almost all the aspect of life, and it could be used in family environment, cultural or even social aspects. This vocabulary consists of 1,971 words. This kind of vocabulary is the most used from the educational tasks.
Fundamental Vocabulary: This type does not contain any problem, is composed of 210 words with a frequency that can be understood in different and special atmospheres.
Classification of Vocabulary
Size: This refers to this period as "amplitude" when speaking vocabulary size, and the number of words that learners can learn. Probably the vocabulary size is the only dimension that matter in small vocabularies.
Depth: This refers to the knowledge that the student has reached. It is also considered that the size is more relevant than the depth, because the extensive vocabulary is crucial for the student, as there are hard data that the size of the vocabulary.
Receptive (passive): These are also called passive, when a speaker is interpreted in different situations that receive messages.
Productive (active): Also called active, are the set of units of the mental lexicon, where a speaker actually used in the messages sent.
These four strategies set important pedagogical resources for learning a foreign language using the learners’ retentive. As a result, they help a better oral expression by learners.
This investigation project will allow putting forward a proposal of improvement to develop the skill of speaking that it’s relevant for the communication in the English language. It is appropriated since the context in which the students and teachers are unrolled in this project.
The oral expression serves as a communication tool between pupils where teachers must generate less encourage communicating with the acquisition of new vocabulary, this means that through the vocabulary learners can prove their communicative expressions in their environment. According to Aguilera Quinto Edith (2012) in her thesis "Expression and Comprehension on Language and its Incidence on Learning" (p. 21-22) has quoted to Douglas Barnes (2007), Language Strategies in Learning, said about: “Talking is the main medium through which students explore the relationship between what they already know and the new observations and interpretations of the reality faced. In fact each of us talking to himself to explain our thoughts.” (p. 17). In this quote, the writer sustains that oral expression is the best way to the students for making up their ideas through oral expression and the observations and interpretations are intrinsic and subjective depending of the thoughts from the teenagers.
Moreover, the role that has performed the oral language in accordance with Antich (1986) said. "The primacy of spoken language lies in the objective reality of nature as a social phenomenon and through verbal communication par excellence Hence the need to give priority to the establishment of mechanisms for listening and speaking, which means that first presented oral language and written language is taught from what learners have learned orally. " (p. 64). Antich states that speaking language is the principal tool for the verbal communication and for learning any language. In addition, expressing orally is one of the best means for teaching a language.
Otherwise, the mission of the teacher is to use the vocabulary as a key factor to strengthen the oral expression, to increase the knowledge not only to learn the meaning of each word but associate in order to have greater variability and security in a conversation. According to Monica Torres (2010), who in her book Basic Methodology for Teaching English, said: “When a new Word is found in learning English, it is very important to work out its meaning and then to store it in a written form in some way, so that the learner can remember and find it again as necessary”. (p. 14). Torres in her study gave a value message about vocabulary use and affirms that obtaining new vocabulary is the principal factor in the oral expression and it implicates search for the meaning of each word learned that is a priority in an oral expression.
The investigation was based on Epistemological, Psychological, Pedagogical and Legal Foundations.
The necessity of didactic resources is a problem because the students do not have an adequate material for learning words which are used in a daily way. All these factors produce a necessity of interest to the students at the moment of learning a new language.
According to Ferrer (1994) related "Communicating is to share something between ourselves, that is, is a specific radical and emotional quality of man that arises from the need to contact others, when exchanges ideas that acquire significance or meaning according to common prior experiences”. (p. 25). It expresses that the communication is the only way to share ideas between the learners and it is a basic factor developing the learning process in any class.
Consequently, communication in English is an element that needs to be developed, because of emphasizes the oral expression; because it is the set of techniques that determine the guidelines for communicate orally effectively and without barriers.
In the same way, oral expression is based on the communication already that provides foundation for developing other skills for the study of language, this means that develop the ability to speak what others are saying, and for her part, Antich (1986) stated:
A long time ago, this foundation has been applied in the teaching-learning process by showing that the context in where it unwraps the learners, it makes emphasize the scientific facts involving the growth of cognitive development of learners to more effectively build their knowledge, this means that the new contents are combined with prior knowledge schemes organized logically to be applied in a certain reality.
Besides this the psychologically learning has two essential learning approaches that claim depends on the development, social, intellectual and emotional evolution that is the way it organizes the environment, according to several authors such as Piaget, Bandura and Ausubel say about approaches construction of knowledge.
Meanwhile, Cesar Solórzano (2007) in his book "Constructivism: Learning Base Durable" cited Piaget's thinking:
Learning isn’t a spontaneous demonstration of isolated forms, but an indivisible activity comprised of the processes of assimilation and accommodation, the resulting balance allows the person actively adapt to the reality, which is the ultimate goal of learning where knowledge is acquired not only by internalizing the social environment, but dominated the construction made by the subject. It is a process in which new information is incorporated into existing structures or patterns in the minds of people, amending and reorganized as a mechanism of assimilation and accommodation provided by the student activity. The development of intelligence is an adaptation of the person to the world or surrounding environment, is developed through the process of maturation, a process that also includes learning directly. (p. 64)
In this quote mentioned by Piaget it is sustained that learning is an important component in the assimilation and accommodation progress and it is an important factor on the adaptation to the reality. Piaget sustains that learning is the only way for developing human criteria and intelligence, which are natural, processes in people’s life.
As a result, pedagogy arises from the necessity of train learners under a constructivist paradigm to be more socio-cognitive and analytical to be part of the social innovation within the education system.
This Project has a methodological development in both aspects quantitative and qualitative. The qualitative is expressed in the process of scientific understanding it moved through the logic of research from the theoretical support of the variables studied, until the interpretative processes, and the quantitative data obtained from tabulations of the survey and interviews.
Analysis-Synthesis: These methods were used to focus the object of study based on the two variables exposed before being analyzed step by step with the objective of evaluate them in an integral way. This method also travels throughout the logic of research.
Inductive-Deductive: It allows the investigation to begin with the particular fact unique in a given context to conclude with a scientific generalization.
Historical and Logical: This methodology was applied after an intense research and the analysis of the background of the Institution and its necessities through a specific theoretical frame as assistants of this investigation.
Structural-Systematic: In this investigation was applied a structural design because it is divided into two punctual chapters for the study of the problem and the application of a solution through the construction of a Didactic guide for the use of the teacher and the students.
Observation: to detect and assimilate the information found in the selected context for a record of certain facts through a physical document as the observation guide.
Survey: To obtain useful data a special bank of questions was designed and applied through close questions in order to know the students’ previous experiences inside English classes
Interview: It was an important resource to obtain the authority and teacher’s opinion, experience in class and their vision of this project.
Mathematical-Statistical Analysis: This method helps to collect statistical information, which can be observed in tables and graphs that allowed highlighting the difficulties and strengths found in each evaluated criteria,
Chic Square: It was applied to prove the relation between the two variables studied.
The purpose of this investigation is to find the reality of the education, that is why different investigation instruments as Surveys, Interviews and Direct Observation were applied and their results will be explained in the following paragraphs..
The analysis of the survey showed that students have a low level in the oral expression in English. This deficiency is caused by the insufficient application of vocabulary activities. In addition, the students admit and agree that the implementation of activities in classes will reinforce their development in fluency. It showed that students are afraid of talking in classes, and the classes are often boring and not interesting.
In addition, in the interview to the teacher, he accepted that the use of a Didactic Guide could be a great tool for developing oral expression due to the fact of the insufficient vocabulary from the students.
In the survey, the students agreed that it is very important having a Didactic Guide for the use of English specially at the moment of talking in English Language because it is not their mother tongue and their consider that having a good vocabulary knowledge is an important characteristic for speaking in English
In the observation guide, it was clear that the teacher does not use a Didactic Guide to develop a speaking activity, as a consequence the students did not feel ensure to speak.
Finally, the teacher was glad to be part of this investigation; and said that she would like to have a copy of the activities that this project will present
Due to the English language is the second language worldwide and is important in all areas as social, economic, commercial, educational, etc., it was designed a proposal methodological strategies that encourage students to acquire vocabulary for improving the oral expression of the students.
This proposal was designed to strengthen the learning of oral expression, academic achievement and personal to each student through vocabulary, so it wants to get positive results in students and that teacher can properly use the strategies in each development class, undoubtedly trying to contribute with this new idea to increase the knowledge of students.
The proposal has become a viable alternative means and solution, so this project proposes the application of a methodological guide with strategies in order to improve the quality of student learning, and thus ensures social welfare, coexistence peaceful and the development of skills of the beneficiaries. It also promotes an integral and cooperative development.
The students agreed that it is very important to have a Didactic Guide for the use of English especially at the moment of Speaking, because it is not their mother tongue and they consider that having a good knowledge in vocabulary is an important characteristic for speaking in English.
Conforming the Chi square results, a big part of the students agreed that obtaining a better didactical resource to practice their vocabulary accuracy could increase their oral expression as one of the most important skills in any language.
In the observation guide, it was clear that the teacher does not use a Didactic Guide to develop speaking activities; consequently, the students were not confident to speak.
In the interview to the teacher, he accepted that the use of a Didactic Guide could be a great tool for developing the oral expression due to the fact of the insufficient vocabulary from the students.
The application of a didactic guide with vocabulary banks and common expressions for teenagers will develop one of the most important skills in the process of learning English in the students of Eighth Basic Course at “Dr. Luis Felipe Borja Pérez” High School.
The research Project: Gestión de competencias para publicaciones científicas en estudiantes de pregrado y postgrado de la Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE.
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Unit 1: Social strategy
•To identify the new meaning of the words
•To get students to have the ability to use new vocabulary in real situations.
•To reinforce vocabulary learned as it becomes a fact experiential.
•Students will review the vocabulary of parts of the house.
•Correct use of the vocabulary of the parts of the house in real situations.
•Active development concerning doing chores at home.
•Students identify new words.
• Do a debate.
Unit 2: cognitive strategy
• To identify the meaning of vocabulary words through the strategy of grouping words.
• Write a great number of words in different categories in a box to show students.
•The student must locate each of the words according to the relevant category.
• Guessing the actions being undertaken using the vocabulary learned using the words in the box.
Unit 3: alphabet soup strategy
• To develop oral communication by introducing into sentences the prepositions of place.
Ask students to be fixed around, objects and their partners.
•Look at the pictures and label them with the correct preposition
• Tell the students locate the pictures according to the prepositions of place.
• Students know and learn about the prepositions. In addition, they will be able to structure and not just to say sentences.
Unit 1. Social strategy
Objective of the class
To identify the new meaning of the words.
To get students to have the ability to use new vocabulary in real situations.
To reinforce vocabulary learned as it becomes a fact experiential.
Motivation: 5 min
1. Put on the board a picture of a man with a rope.
2. Put on the board counting how many horizontal lines
3. Letters is the word that students try to guess.
4. Ask letters to students, if the letters do not match choking man go, students have five opportunities.
5. Students identify the meaning of new words that are within a given frame; with this strategy, they can put graphics in the right way. Living room dining room bedroom kitchen Bathroom laundry studio.
6. Have students guess what word is hidden in this game by selecting one by one the letters that compose it. If you select the letter is in the word, it will appear in their proper place; if not, and a part of the picture of a hangman appears. If the figure hangman is completed before the word, you discover an error accumulates; if you can discover the whole word before this happens, you accumulate a success.
1. Label the picture
Objective of the class
Identify the meaning of vocabulary words through the strategy of grouping words.
Motivation: 5 min.
Explain the activity: guess the actions the student using the vocabulary is performing.
This is the classic game of mimic, which not only allows pamper the actions represented on the charts, but also train the oral expression (for example: to guess the action, describing it), working vocabulary of actions and verbs.
The drawings must show different categories: animals, musical instruments, transport, objects of daily life, clothing and activities and professions.
Just print, cut and laminate the pictures, whose status is determined by a color. You can also make a die and place it on each side of the corresponding category, so each player to roll the dice know what type of category will play.
You can also make a die and place it on each side of the corresponding category, so each player to roll the dice know what type of category will play.
Presentation: 10 min.
1. Write a great number of words in different categories in a box to show students.
Review the pronunciation with the students.
Production: 15 min.
The student must locate each of the words according to the relevant category.
The student becomes familiar with the new vocabulary that ranked in their categories.
Guessing the actions being undertaken using the vocabulary learned using the words in the box.
Evaluation: 5 min.
Check the classification of words according to the category presented.
B. Match the pictures
Alphabet soup strategy
Objective of the class
Develop oral communication by introducing into sentences the prepositions of place.
Motivation: 5 min.
Explain the activity
Ask students to be fixed around, objects and their partners. Then by means of a known example of the prepositions of place, you must show at least three prepositions.
Later, motivates a student to do the same as you, saying the position of a nearby companion or subject to a limit of 5 minutes using the three prepositions of place and provide help if necessary.
After this you can enter the other prepositions of place.
Presentation: 5 min.
Tell the students locate the pictures according to the prepositions of place.
Encourage students to make sentences with the prepositions of place
Practice: 10 min.
Tell students to participate in the vocabulary, indicating the steps of the strategy for better performance.
Production: 15 min.
Students know and learn about the prepositions of place. In addition, they will be able to structure and not just to say sentences but to write sentences.
Looking at the charts, they will be able to describe each of them, using prepositions of place and practice with peers
Evaluation: 5 min.
Students practice using the prepositions of place real classroom objects.
Students use prepositions of place in short paragraphs and include the vocabulary
Perform a short description using prepositions
Complete the sentences with the prepositions of places using the words in the box
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Digital · Año 21 · N° 221 | Buenos Aires,
Octubre de 2016