The importance of sung toys in Physical Education
La importancia de los juegos cantados en Educación Física
A importância dos brinquedos cantados em Educação Física
*Professor Doutor em Educação Física do Centro Universitário para
o Desenvolvimento do Alto Vale do Itajaí - UNIDAVI, Rio do Sul, SC
**Professora Especialista em Educação Física
da Fundação Municipal de Esportes, no Rio do Sul, SC
***Professor Especialista em Educação Física
da Academia livre de Esportes, Francisco Beltão, PR
Greice Kelly Cipriani**
Marcelo Francisco Koeche***
This article aims to reflect on the importance of sung toys and children's folklore in the education of children as well as their inclusion in the educational environment, providing not only a rescue culture, characteristic of the social environment in which the child is located, but also a method that facilitates the process of child development aspects, physical, moral, intellectual and social. The Physical Education teacher becomes the main mediator of contact between the child and his past, as it allows the child through ludic play their integral development, and the singing games, allowing this rescue.
Keywords: Sung toys. Folklore children. Education.
Este artigo tem como objetivo refletir sobre a importância dos Brinquedos Cantados e do Folclore Infantil na educação de crianças assim como sua inserção no meio educacional, proporcionando não somente um resgate da cultura, característica do meio social a qual a criança está inserida, mas também um método que favorece o processo de desenvolvimento infantil nos aspectos, físicos, morais, intelectuais e sociais. O professor de Educação Física torna-se o principal mediador desse contato entre a criança e seu passado, pois possibilita à criança por meio de brincadeiras lúdicas o seu desenvolvimento integral, sendo as brincadeiras cantadas o que possibilita esse resgate.
Unitermos: Brinquedos cantados. Folclore infantil. Educação.
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Education has always been a challenge to educators and schools are currently faced with cultural diversity, globalization and increasing technology, as well as changing the world today. And in this contest, the singing games, although it may seem an anachronism, indicates possibilities for the child develop creativity through images, representations, values and meanings.
The sung toys integrate a set of anonymous songs, which are part of the culture due to the spontaneous experience of life of any human collectivity, in which the children live in a natural and harmonic sequence with human development, because it requires a balanced environment, which can meet the needs of their own childhood.
The benefits of the singing games are in order to allow and organize physical education classes recreationally, cultural and pedagogical. Being a good strategy for the consolidation of rhythmic activities of easy integration in the development of the subject.
The singing games suggest the development of education of body rhythm, creativity, and spontaneity improved affectivity, neuromuscular coordination, and also uniting all those entering as a potential to fraternize, being a carrier of socialization.
From this initial context this paper aims to reflect on the use of sung toys as a proposed activity for physical education classes in elementary school in order to play the right of every child.
The singing games that portray our culture, are always dynamic and functional, fulfills its role of satisfying some needs like, affective, intellectual, moral, social or religious expression. Children play with the songs and, through them, entering the universe of social codes. Stands out, however, that the singing play is collectively and involves subjective feelings, so it's a ludic way of learning, every joke learned by the child, is a byproduct resulting from the interaction of children on a common and shared symbolic system.
Meanwhile, the singing games, including using folklore, highlight the important aspects such as its definition, origin, classification and characteristics, taking greater deepening in folk songs, the influence of the medium is outstanding in the folklore child comes contribute to the overall development of the child. The history of sung plays finds its importance and its necessity, as it offers enormous influence on social and emotional development of the child.
The folklore: conditions of culture
Folklore is inseparable childhood friend. When small children fall asleep to the sound of lullabies without knowing that they certainly packed too many of their ancestors. There is a constant search about our history and our influences. The past of our culture is very important so we can understand our present through which we can build our future.
To Verderi (2002) the folklore has features vivifying of his art, and means of divulgation, rescue and conservation. Without this, we run the risk of losing everything through time what the time itself formed along the humanity evolution . The people who do not cultivates their roots lose part of their identity. The folklore is made by the people and only remain alive if the people become a source.
For many the folklore became synonymous with being really curious, funny, or products of inferior cultures. In Rio Grande do Sul, due to great manifestation of dances and costumes of poems and ballads, there is a tendency in popular opinion of restrict the definition of folklore (INOCENTE, 1993)
However Inocente (1993) emphasizes that not everything that is popular is folkloric because folklore has defined characteristics, we can see this: antiques or traditionally: time of occurrence of the event. The facts are passed from generation to generation. Ensuring the survival of the values of a culture. Collective acceptance: general adoption of the fact by the people who take it for himself, considering it as their own, modifying it creating new variants.
The children's folklore, its encompassing universe, comes to contribute to the overall development of the child. In this contact with the environment, arise to experiences that contribute to the structure of reality and of his personality. In this sense, the music program in Childhood Education enables the development of various skills related to both areas motor, cognitive and affective, promoting the integral formation of children.
In the early stages of school education the contact with music should symbolize the seizure of certain body movements, accompanying sounds, swings, dancing, besides allowing the improvement of hearing and issuance of sounds, whose skills are essential to musical appreciation.
While handmade creation and community folk music is added to standards accepted by all and being a feature peculiar to adapt to circumstances. It is common, for example, that the same melody suffers the most diverse strains, and presents several versions and can also be found at the same time in a nursery rhyme for children and adults in a dance of fantastic yard. In general it can be said that folk music is not performed independently, it condition the some end because it meets the needs of the environment in which it propagates.
For Howard (1984) folk music is that which preserves and transmits orally, expanding so quite naturally, and having a collective acceptance. It differs from the classical music called for it not to be sought persevering search or enhancement intentionally, and the song called popular, because it is not produced in series or have commercial destination. In its simplicity, the folk music becomes more authentic and spontaneous, and assumes a power of communication and immediate resonance in the spirit of the people that practice.
Sung toys: the universe child
The influence of sung toys in the universe is unquestionable. The same perpetuated from generation to generation through time, being passed by older generations to younger ones. Being one of the more physical activities applicable to the recreation of children. In all parts of the world, as we passed through a street where children were playing casually, it was common to see so natural and spontaneous, using toy sung in any of its forms.
The formation of circles are the first collective experiences of exploitation of internal and external spaces. The limits of the wheel act as borders or foundation of the concepts that develop from the distinction of inside and outside, to belong or not to belong, to be or not to be. Learning with the body in motion, the child is located, forward, back approaches, moves away, compresses and releases learns the fundamentals of relationships that need to be established for the development of his thought (WINNICOTT, 1975).
Singing and dancing in a play group, the child brings elements of humanity's past to its present. From the experiences of this past related to the contents of their gift, is able to project its future, creating its own identity, because the singing games portray our culture, are always dynamic and functional.
Paiva (2003) evidence that sung toys, funky chicken or circles joke wheel, are activities of great educational value and folkloric, being the expression of a healthy childhood. It is the most complete joke the pedagogical point of view, it is a situation in which the child can develop fully to the rhythm of dances naive, is through singing and music that they can disinhibit are expressive forms of manifestation of the child's soul .
It is one of the most primitive forms of dance and the steps are simply gestural expressions associated with body movement. It is a factor in the preservation and transmission of our traditions, and one of the first manifestations of associative spirit of children, being a true cultural heritage of humanity.
The importance of sung toys
By observing child development, one can not leave analyze the concept of childhood through the ages, which presents ample evidence that children were seen and treated by society in countless ways: they were dressed as miniature adults, playing hunting birds, only babies could be cared for and educated women, the knowledge acquired was administered and selected by adults, babies were curled and motionless.
The infant universe is present in every person. The experiences leave deep marks in his life. Even without knowing it, brings the gestures, speech and customs. These characteristics are stored in their experiences and are part of their personal and social history, being hidden or not in his memory.
The toys must have its psychological function, social and educational. Any song or situation should foster child in a world of pleasure, where she can jokes through the foster their curiosity, imagination, creativity and oral expression, the most important is that sung toys must have affective meaning in every moment.
Currently all the space of expression for children, and has the main purpose to promote the overall development of human beings in a dynamic interaction pleasure. Especially, stimulating the process of structuring affective – cognitive children’s, creative socialize the young and keep the spirit of achievement in adults.
The pleasurable activities, mainly singing games, offer objective, possible a different way for the child to play at the same time, she jokes that develops, interacts with other children and adults have access to and diversified.
The joke must be present in early childhood education, not to occupy time, but serves to pass the child to develop the intellectual, self-confidence, exploration, curiosity, reasoning, emotion, psychomotricity, which will take it enlarge its values and bundle up in a healthy way with people.
From studies on the links between the phenomena transactional and play in this context, means play can be seen as an environment capable of hosting the spontaneity of the child in pursuit of his own being, she can be creative, spontaneous and feel safe.
The world of pleasure, often associated with ludic, while that returns a stimulus for children to play, rescues the joy of being able to experiment, discover and create. The school and the jokes provide learners an environment pleasant, facilitating integration between them and modifying the framework of aggressiveness so common nowadays. Perceiving them as companions for singing games, which are usually in groups. What matters is that your body and mind are in motion, driven by the pleasure of acting and performing in a constant state of dialogue and communication.
It is noticed that the kids can play for fun and also to master their fears and externalize their aggression. It is noted in the games that carry a personal way to unload in a toy sung their concerns, fears or traumatic real situations. All they reach the living somehow.
Oliveira (1993) points out that pleasurable activities for children means watching your singing games in the way they deal with their feelings, the way they learn to socialize with each other. It is through play that children develop their sense of fellowship, seeking to understand rules and achieve a satisfactory participation in music interaction. Therefore, there must be an awareness on the part of adults, the importance of pleasure for children in their growth, maturity and a social life.
For Winnicott (1975) there is a moment in the life of the child, she still can not dissociate his fantasies and reality in which it participates. At the same time knows and accepts that finds around him, believes that may have delusions and delves into fantasy.
Sung Toys integrate the set of anonymous songs that are part of the culture due to the spontaneous experience of life of any human collectivity. They give a natural and harmonic sequence with human development as the child needs a balanced environment that can meet the needs of their own childhood.
Many singing games can be characterized as forms of expression of the body that are part of the folklore, especially the infant, represented by the Association of musicality and movement.
Although many of the singing games that integrate the folklore, there are those who are not part of this universe. Currently, due to the technological advancement of media is increasing access to work of educators who create their own forms of music and play it, and a concern with the pedagogical aspects of their productions.
However, we must be attentive to the infant universe by invasions bias purely commercial, consumer, leading to camouflage the manifestations of public domain or to use them to strengthen the cultural industry. It is a practice that has been taking great figures today, and needs to be treated with caution by the educator as a way to avoid opportunism devoid of educational commitment.
The child, from birth, interacting in various ways in the physical environment and, therefore, is learning continuously. In this sense, should be seen as part of a whole that modifies and is modified by it. Currently the child is a social being and history shows that differences in social origin, economic, cultural, among others, that need to be known, respected and valued in the institutions they attend.
Sung Toys these days, in these times that are spontaneous manifestations of culture with your goals so forgotten. On the streets, in the squares, in backyards, is more rare to see or hear of those songs that children's mouths, in the simplicity of his melodies, rhythms and words, hold centuries of wisdom and wealth condensed popular imagination.
Marcelino (1996) shows that the commodification of childhood has been happening often disregarding the age of the child and away from increasingly playing and playfulness of their daily practice, and the school is one of the contributors of this instrumentation.
The joke can be seen as an act of pleasure, which has a predominance of imagination in constant interrelation with the game, prevailing activity of this organization through rules. Jokingly, the child seeks to understand and master the facts out of your reach, there is a direct correlation of the imagination with the social world of their origin.
The joke also allows you to transcend the immediate reality, given the presence, even as a minority, other social realities that establish exchange with one in which the child lives. Although the child usually can not act directly on the part of reality, becomes a pleasurable activity of the ways in which the child appropriates the world, and why the human world enters into its constitution process as historical subject.
Rescue sung toys and the folklore as a component of manifestation of culture is a special and important requirement for maintaining the human tradition, be it anywhere in this world. Use it as a learning strategy by the teacher seems to allow alive the memory of their existence, besides providing a pleasurable activity characteristics.
Thinking in human development, one can understand that an education that elects the integral development of the subject is one of the possibilities in the culture necessary to achieve a meaningful education and this requires the ability to relate to different teaching conditions.
In this sense, understand different languages, concepts and learning conditions make possible decision taken in different contexts. The singing games can constitute so different modes of experimentation and demonstrations of creative activity where children interact with the world in which they live, as well as the rescue culture inserted, which famously allowed an education more meaningful and representative in the context of high infant.
HOWARD, W. A música e a criança. São Paulo: Summus, 1984.
INOCENTE, P. Folclore infantil. São Paulo: CEITEC, 1993.
MARCELINO, N. C. Estudos de lazer: uma introdução. Campinas: Autores Associados, 1996.
OLIVEIRA, M. O desenvolvimento e aprendizagem. São Paulo: Scipione, 1993.
PAIVA, I. M. R. Brinquedos cantados. Rio de Janeiro: Sprint, 2003.
VERDERI, E. Encantando a educação física. Rio de Janeiro: Sprint, 2002.
WINNICOTT, D. W. O brincar e a realidade. São Paulo: Imago, 1975.
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Digital · Año 17 · N° 173 | Buenos Aires,
Octubre de 2012